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.L’art romànic

Les alteracions polítiques produïdes al segle XI amb la desvinculació gradual dels comtats catalans de la monarquia franca i la compartimentació dels territoris musulmans en regnes de taifa, són clarament perceptibles en l’arquitectura. Al principi del segon mil•lenni aparegueren dues tendències, que sovint trencaren amb les tradicions locals anteriors.

Una és l’arquitectura de filiació llombarda, que es caracteritza per l’ús general d’un aparell de pedres allargades, que devia anar recobert per un arrebossat, i una decoració exterior de lesenes (pilars de secció rectangular) i arcuacions llombardes. Les finestres acostumen a ésser estretes però de doble esqueixada. Aquest estil abunda a banda i banda dels Pirineus i, pel Sud, arriba al Penedès.

Els monuments més importants es divideixen en tres grans grups: oriental (catedrals de Girona i de Vic, monestirs de Cuixà, de Ripoll i de Breda), la majoria, de la primera meitat del segle XI; central (Sant Vicenç de Cardona i Sant Serni de Tavèrnoles); i occidental (esglésies d’Andorra, de l’Alt Urgell, del Pallars i de la Vall d’Aran). El castell més important d’aquest moment és el de Llordà, i també pertany al mateix estil el cos principal del palau dels comtes de Barcelona.

L’altra tendència és la que es dóna al Rosselló i a l’Empordà en alguns edificis d’aparell de pedra ben tallada amb columnes i grans capitells (Sant Pere de Rodes, en la segona etapa de construcció, acabada vers el 1022; Sant Andreu de Sureda, Sant Genís de Fontanes, la catedral d’Elna, Sant Miquel de Fluvià) i, amb un caràcter diferent, Sant Pere d’Àger.

En tota aquesta etapa no es pot parlar d’escultura típicament romànica, però la talla a bisell, així com la de tema vegetal o geomètric, en la decoració d’estuc d’alguns edificis és notable. A Catalunya, els exemples més arcaics d’escultura clarament romànica semblen aparèixer a Santa Maria de Besalú, amb capitells amb figures i d’altres de tradició clàssica amb fulles d’acant. La plenitud del romànic amb aparell de grossos carreus i decoració escultòrica té a les comarques occidentals un monument principal del segle XII, la catedral d’Urgell. Hi ha petits grups comarcals ben definits (a la Vall d’Aran i a la Cerdanya), i escoles més riques, al Conflent i al Rosselló; l’artista més important entre els qui treballaren en aquest sector fou l’anomenat Mestre de Cabestany. Les comarques gironines presenten exemples notables (Sant Joan de les Abadesses).

El romànic tardà, entorn del 1200, semblava haver tingut el centre principal a Girona (claustre de la catedral) des d’on passà a Barcelona (claustre de Sant Cugat del Vallès), amb una altra derivació a Santa Maria de l’Estany (capitells de la vida de Jesús). A Solsona cal destacar la decoració aplicada a l’arquitectura de la catedral. A Tarragona hi ha bons exemples, sovint en marbre, especialment el claustre de la catedral. Una branca del darrer grup rossellonès confluí a Lleida amb altres tradicions i produí al llarg del segle XIII una esplèndida escola centrada en la catedral, amb exemples fins a València (porta del Palau, a la seu).

Paral•lelament tingué molta importància l’escultura en fusta, els millors exemplars de la qual semblen pertànyer a la primera meitat del segle XII. Excel•liren les marededéus sedents, per tot el principat, els Crists en creu i grups del Davallament (Viella, Boí, Sant Joan de les Abadesses), els Crists vestits (La Garrotxa i la Cerdanya). Pel que fa a les tècniques pictòriques, la miniatura romànica prengué molta importància al segle XI a Ripoll (grans Bíblies, etc), d’on devien dependre altres centres com Vic, Cuixà, Arles, etc.

La pintura mural, actualment sovint conservada en museus, és excepcional. Una primera etapa totalment romànica es troba a Boí (en relació amb les Bíblies catalanes) i un grup central oriental (Osormort, el Brull, Bellcaire) enllaçat amb l’art del Poitou. A la darreria del segle XI un gran artista, el Mestre de Pedret, centrà a la diòcesi d’Urgell els contactes amb l’art italià bizantinitzant. L’any 1123 treballaren a Taüll un grup d’artistes el més important dels quals decorà l’absis de l’església de Sant Climent, joia de la pintura romànica catalana. En ple segle XII abunden els frontals, baldaquins i altres elements de decoració d’altar. A la darreria de la centúria hi hagué un nou corrent d’enllaç amb el món italobizantí (Mestre de Baltarga, d’Avià i de Lluçà).

Dins les arts decoratives sobresurten algunes peces tan importants com el brocat dit tapís de la Creació (Museu de la Catedral de Girona) del segle XI o XII, o l’estendard de Sant Ot (Museu d’Art de Catalunya), del segle XII, la tapa esmaltada del missal, del segle XII (a la seu de Tortosa), etc.
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Girona és una ciutat amb notables exemples de l'art romànic: temples, claustres, torres, i també l'excepcional mostra de l'art tèxtil del segle XI, el famós Tapís de la Creació.


Veure Mapa





Sant Nicolau

L'itinerari que ens portarà a visitar aquestes peces es pot iniciar a Sant Nicolau, església del segle XII bastida sobre restes molt més reculades, fruit d'una considerable restauració efectuada el 1943. L'interior d'aquest edifici, bellíssim i equilibrat, només és visitable quan s'hi duen a terme exposicions artístiques, o, molt recomanable, amb motiu de l'anual esdeveniment Girona Temps de Flors.



Sant Pere de Galligants

D'aquí podem seguir escassos metres per visitar Sant Pere de Galligants, antic monestir benedictí del segle XII, actualment seu del Museu d'Arqueologia de Catalunya. A part de les col·leccions museístiques que conté, mostra de la petja de l'home a les nostres contrades des del Paleolític inferior a l'epoca baix-medieval, és notable el seu claustre, visita absolutament recomanable. De l'exterior cal destacar-ne la rosassa de la façana, el campanar i els armoniosos volums del seu àbsis, conjunt del que es pot tenir una magnífica visió des del Jardí del Dr. Figueres.



Els Banys Àrabs

D'aquí podem seguir en direcció a la Catedral, travessant el riu Galligants i el Passeig Arqueològic, des d'on gaudirem una vista cavallera de Sant Pere, per visitar, a l'inici del Passeig, els Banys Àrabs, els banys públics medievals -del segle XII-XIII- més ben conservats de Catalunya, que, malgrat el seu nom, són de construcció romànica i no àrab. S'hi poden visitar perfectament conservats els tres espais de que constaven: el frigidarium, la gran zona de banys freds, el caldarium, on es gaudia de banys calents, i el tepidarium la sala de banys de vapor i massatge. El conjunt conserva tota la infraestructura de forns, calderes, conduccions, cisternes i clavegueres.



El conjunt de la Catedral

Travessant l'antiga porta de la Gerunda romana, la Porta Gàl·lica, actualment Sobreportes, se'ns obre la plaça de la Catedral, edifici on podrem gaudir de peces tant importants com els capitells del seu claustre, l'anomenada Torre de Carlemany o el Tapís de la Creació.

Antic temple romà, damunt el qual es va bastir una primitiva catedral romànica, dels segles XII-XIII, encara conserva dos elements arquitectònics que en procedeixen: la Torre de Carlemany, una de les dues que tenia, i que va ser emprada com a contrafort en la construcció del temple gòtic, i el claustre, únic al món per la seva forma trapezoïdal i doble columnata. Els capitells, molts d'ells historiats, és un autèntic costumari medieval en pedra: hi abunden les representacions tant bíbliques com mitològiques, treballades amb una considerable minuciositat.

Al Tresor de la Catedral es conserva una peça única al món en la seva categoria: un treball tèxtil del segle XI, l'anomenat Tapís de la Creació, dit així per la simbologia dels cercles centrals, que en realitat és un brodat amb llanes de colors sobre un fons de llí. El fragment que se'n conserva és de 3,65 x 4,70 metres.



Visita virtual: les imatges


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Sant Nicolau, segle XII.
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Sant Pere de Galligants, segle XII.
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Història de Sant Pere de Galligants.
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Claustre de Sant Pere de Galligants.
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Els capitells de Sant Pere de Galligants.
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La Catedral. Història.
Mostra
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Carlemany i Girona.
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El Claustre de la Catedral.
Mostra
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Els Capitells del Claustre de la Catedral.
Mostra
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El Tapís de la Creació, segle XI.

Snails live = Import- Export
Purchasing

............................................................................. AuthenticationThis information is awaiting authentication by a species expert,
and will be updated as soon as possible. If you
are able to help please contact: arkive@wildscreen.org.uk
Glossary
Calcareous: containing free calcium carbonate, chalky.
Hermaphrodites: possessing both male and female sex organs.
Hibernate: a winter survival strategy characteristic of
some mammals in which an animal's metabolic rate
slows down and a state of deep sleep is attained.
Whilst hibernating, animals survive on stored reserves of fat
that they have accumulated in summer. In insects, the correct term for hibernation is
'diapause', a temporary pause in development and growth.
Any stage of the lifecycle (eggs, larvae, pupae or
adults) may enter diapause, which is typically associated
with winter.Nocturnal: active at night.
Self-fertilise:
fusion of male and female sex cells (gametes) from one
individual. In contrast, in cross-fertilisation, two
different individuals are involved.
References
National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (March 2003): http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nbn/
Pfleger, V. & Chatfield, J. (1983) A guide to snails
of Britain and Europe. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd.,
London.
Kerney, M.P. & Cameron, R.A.D. (1979) A field guide to the land snails of
Britain and north west Europe. William Collins Sons and Co. Ltd.,
London.
Brown garden snail: University of Florida Department of Entomology and
Nematology. (March 2003): http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/misc/gastro/brown_garden_snail.htm
Janus, H. (1982) The illustrated guide to molluscs. Harold Starke Ltd., London.
Koene, J. M. & Chase, R. (1998) Changes in the reproductive system of the snail Helix aspersa caused by
mucus from the love dart. The Journal of Experimental Biology,
201: 2313-2319.
Buczacki, S. (2002) Fauna Britannica. Hamlyn, London.

Snails

Snails belong to the group of animals called molluscs.

There are many species, or kinds, of snail. Land snails can be found in
almost every kind of habitat, including deserts, mountains,
wetlands, forests and gardens. The biggest land snail is the Giant
African snail, which can grow up to 30 cm in length. The biggest
freshwater snail is the Giant Apple snail, which can grow to 15cm in
length and 600g in weight. The biggest of all snails is an Australian
sea snail that can grow to a length of over 77 cm and a weight of 18 kg.

Most kinds of snail are sea animals, many are land animals, some are
freshwater animals. Most are herbivores but some are omnivores (eat
meat and plants).

Snail Body
Inside a snail's body there is a muscle called a foot, and this propels
the snail. The snail's body is kept moist by mucus, and that helps the
snail to glide along as the foot ripples. The mucus that the snail
produces helps its movement and reduces the risk of injury from sharp
objects. When snails pull their bodies into their shells, they can
close a door-like part of the shell called an operculum.


Life Cycle
Snails are hermaphrodites(say: her-maf-row-dites). This means that each snail
has a female part which lays eggs and a male part which makes sperm.

When two snails mate, each snail presses the front part of its foot
against the foot of the other snail. The snails shoot a hard dart into each
other, which makes sperm pass between them. However, a single snail can do
all this by itself! The sperm will make the eggs each snail lays, grow
into baby snails.

About two weeks after mating, the snail scrapes a hole in the soil and
lays its eggs there. A snail lays between 20 and 50 eggs at a time.

The eggs are covered up and they hatch after about four weeks.

Some snail facts
As a snail grows its shell grows too

Snails hibernate in winter.

They can mate when they are about one year old.

Snails are related to slugs.

There are more than 7000 species of snails and slugs.

Snails eat plants with their tongues. There are thousands of tiny teeth on a
snail's tongue, or radula. A snail also grinds up small pieces of rock
with its radula to get minerals it
need for a strong healthy shell.

Snails can live for one or two years
For more information about snails go to http://www.kiddyhouse.com/Snails/


Acknowledge this source in your bibliography like this:
Snails (2002). [Online], Available: www.kidcyber.com.au
Helix aspersaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
Helix aspersa

Helix aspersa Conservation status
NE[1] Scientific classification Kingdom Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
informal group Pulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora

informal group Sigmurethra


Superfamily: Helicoidea

Family: Helicidae

Genus: Helix

Species: H. aspersa

Binomial name
Helix aspersa
(O. F. Müller, 1774)[2]

Helix aspersa, known by the common
name garden snail, is a species of
land snail, a pulmonate gastropod
that is one of the best-known of
all terrestrial molluscs. It has
two recent synonyms: Cornu aspersum
and Cantareus aspersus.[3]

Although this species is edible, it
is often regarded as a pest in gardens,
especially where it has been accidentally introduced.

Contents [hide]
1 Distribution
2 Description
3 Behaviour
4 Ecology
5 Reproduction
6 Relationship with Humans
7 References
8 External links

[edit] Distribution

A hibernaculum on a doocot in Eglinton,
ScotlandThis species is native to the
Mediterranean region (including Egypt[4])
and western Europe, from northwest Africa
and Iberia east to Asia Minor, and north to the British Isles.

It comprises a set of north African endemic
forms and subspecies that were described
at the beginning of the 20th century on
the basis of shell characteristics. The
most common one, Cornu spersum aspersum
(synonym Helix aspersa aspersa), has
become very abundant in all man-disturbed
habitats in regions with a Mediterranean,
temperate and even subtropical climate.[5]


Cornu aspersum is a typically anthropochorous species which is nowadays
widespread throughout the world in many
zones with climates differing from the
original Mediterranean one. Its presence
is reported on the American continents, as
well as in Australia and in Asia. Therefore, the first explanation for
resemblances between populations located
on either side of the Mediterranean could
be passive transport due to human activities.
Transfers might have started as nearly as
the Neolithic revolution (around 8500 BP) and nowadays they continue occurring in
giving rise in some cases to catastrophic
destruction of habitats.[5]

It is very widely introduced and naturalised
elsewhere in the world[6][7] and its non-native distribution include other parts of
Europe: Bohemia in the Czech Republic since 2008;[8] southern Africa, Australia,
New Zealand, North America and southern
South America.[9] It was introduced to

California as a food animal in the 1850s
and is now a notorious agricultural pest
there, especially in citrus groves. Many
areas have quarantines established for
preventing the importation of the snail in
plant matter.

[edit] Description

Helix aspersaThe adult bears a hard, thin
calcareous shell 25–40 mm in diameter and
25–35 mm high, with four or five whorls.
The shell is somewhat variable in colour
and shade but is generally dark brown or
chestnut with yellow stripes, flecks, or streaks.

The body is soft and slimy, brownish-grey,
and is retracted entirely into the shell
when the animal is inactive or threatened.
During dry and cold weather, the aperture
of the shell is sealed with a thin
membrane of dried mucus which is known as
an epiphragm, which helps the snail retain
moisture. The resultant quiescent periods
are known as aestivation and hibernation
respectively. When hibernating, Helix
aspersa avoids ice formation by altering
the osmotic components of its blood (or
haemolymph), and can survive temperatures
as low as -5°C.[10] During aestivation,
the mantle collar has the unique ability
to change its permeability to water.[11]
In combination with an osmoregulatory
mechanism similar to that seen during
hibernation this allows Helix aspersa to
survive several months of aestivation.


During times of activity the head and foot
emerge. The head bears four tentacles, the
upper two of which have eye-like light
sensors, and the lower two of which are
smaller, tactile and olfactory sensory
structures. The tentacles can be retracted
into the head. The mouth is located

beneath the tentacles, and contains a

chitinous radula which the snail uses to
scrape and manipulate food particles.

Snails are Gastropoda, belonging to the
phylum Mollusca. This phylum also
includes: bivalvia, the family of oysters,
mussels and clams; and cephalopoda: squid
and octopuses.

[edit] Behaviour

Helix aspersa feeding in captivityThe
snail's muscular foot contracts to move
the animal, and secretes mucus to
facilitate locomotion by reducing friction
against the substrate.[7] It moves at a
top speed of 1.3 centimetres per second

[12] (47 meters per hour or ~50 yards per
hour),[13] and has a strong homing
instinct, readily returning to a regular
hibernation site.[14]

[edit] Ecology

Helix aspersaThe garden snail is a gentle
herbivore and has a wide range of host
plants. It feeds on numerous types of
fruit trees, vegetable crops, garden
flowers, and cereals. It is a food source
for many other animals, including small
mammals, many bird species, lizards,
frogs, centipedes, predatory insects, and
predatory terrestrial snails.


Helix aspersa can be used as an indicator
of environmental contamination, as its
shell acts as a site for deposition of
toxic heavy metals, such as lead.[15]

[edit] Reproduction

Mating Helix aspersa.Like other Pulmonata,
Helix aspersa is a hermaphrodite
, producing both male and female gametes.
Reproduction is usually sexual, although
self-fertilisation can occur.[16] During a
mating session of several hours, two
snails exchange sperm. The garden snail
uses love darts during mating.

After about two weeks approximately 80
spherical pearly-white eggs are laid into
crevices in the topsoil. Up to six batches
of 80 eggs can be laid in a year.[17] The

size of the egg is 4 mm.[18]

The young snails take one to two years to
reach maturity.[7]

[edit] Relationship with Humans


Garden snail in Israel.The species is an
agricultural and garden pest, an edible
delicacy, and occasionally a household
pet. In French cuisine, it is known as
petit gris, and is served as escargot. The
snails are farm-raised or bred as a hobby
and eaten with garlic butter or cream

sauces. Their texture is slightly chewy.
The practice of rearing snails for food is
known as heliciculture.


There is a variety of snail control
measures that gardeners and farmers can
take to reduce damage. Traditional
pesticides are still in use, as are many
less toxic control options such as
concentrated garlic or wormwood solutions.
Copper metal is repellent to snails. A
copper band around the trunk of a tree


Snails, Slugs and Worms

Contents: 1 molluscs, 2 worms.



1 Molluscs

The majority of molluscs live in water and most of them live in the seas. A number of them has adapted to living on the land and the best known of them are the slugs and snails. Both groups occur in our garden and some birds eat them. I have an impression that the slugs are less often consumed by birds. The Song Thrush simply loves snails. He uses stones and a paved path in the garden where he crushes the shells of the snails. Slugs and snails can be a pest in your garden. They have a very special feauture: they are hermaphrodites, which means that they are male and female at the same time! So when mating you will see two male organs and all snails and slugs lay eggs!



On the left: It really does look like the eggs are coming out of the ear... On the right: Snails are hermaphrodites

In most gardens there are many more snails and slugs than you might think. Many species are small, very small and overlooked by most of us. Just turn around some stones or old wood and in most cases you'll find some snails attached. The snails in the picture to the left below have been collected in a few minutes time. They are all less than one centimeter in length, so you really have to look carefully! Below you'll find these species dealt with individually.



Various very small snails collected in our garden in just a few minutes.

The eggs of snails and slugs can be found in all gardens, especially in moist places. They do look like small crystal balls. Actually they can be used to foretell the future: one day small snails or slugs will crawl out of them!



These eggs are probably a slug's.

Content: 1.1 snails, 1.2 slugs.



1.1 Snails

Below you see the best known snails: the Garden Snail. But did you know there are actually two species? The only way to tell them apart is by looking at their lipp (the opening of the shell). In one species the lipp has a light band and therefore the animal is called the White-lipped Snail. In the other species this band is brownish or black. This species is thus called... the Brown-lipped Snail. Both species can have exactly the same colours and both come in yellow, pink, brown and all shades of these colours. Their shells are identical as well, so only the colour of the lip gives them away.



On the left: a yellow White-lipped Snail (Cepaea hortensis) and on the right a pink Brown-lipped Snail (Cepaea nemoralis).

The Brown Garden Snail is edible. It is sold as escargot, the name used for many edible snails. The Brown Garden Snail is the second best choice for gourmet use. The number one snail for kitchen use is the Roman Snail, which has a lighter colour and is slightly bigger than the Brown Garden Snail. The Roman Snail usually lives in warmer climates than the Brown Garden Snail, which is not choosy at all. The species has been taken by men on his journeys and can now be found all over the world. It turned out to be a pest especially in Australia and California. The Roman Snail can live up to 30 years (at least in captivity). The shell of the species to the right resembles that of a Roman Snail, but according to Jan Hein Visser it actually is just a worn out shell of the Brown Garden Snail.



More appreciated in the kitchen than in the garden: the Brown Garden Snail (Helix aspersa).

The next snail remained undiscovered in our garden for a long time. It is a very beautiful creature whose shell resemble shells that can be found by the ocean. The rascal is small though. The entire shell hardly reaches two centimeters en the animal itself is about 0.7 centimeters. It obviously belongs to the family of Door Snails and is called the Common Door Snail or Thames Door Snail (Balea biplicata).



This snail is the Common Door Snail (Balea biplicata).

Below you see a shell that even doesn't make half a centimeter. Ik belongs to one of the many snails that all look alike and live in moss. It will not come as a suprise to you that they are called Moss Snails.



This is the Glossy Pillar (Cochlicopa lubrica), a moss snail.

The shell below is extremely small, but very beautiful and colourful as well. It is named after its shape: Round Snail. This species lives almost world wide. In Northern America it is often called the Rotund Disc.



This little snail is known as the Round Snail or Rotund Disc (Discus rotundatus).

Another little snail we haven't yet been able to identify. It looks like the Cellar Snail very much, except for the colour, which is brown and not amber. There are many species of small snails like that and it is not easy to make a good identification. It is quite certain though that both are Oxychilus species. The on to your left has been identified by Tom Meijer being the Dark-bodied Glass Snail (also known as Draparnaud's Glass Snail. The other one has to de with an Oxychilus sp. for the time being. In case you know the exact name, please send us an email: info@gardensafari.net. Thanks to Tom Meijer, Hanny Reneman and Christabel Ashby for their help.



Two small snails of the glass snails group. To the left the Dark-bodied Glass Snail (Oxychilus draparnaudi), to the right an Oxychilus sp.

The Cellar Snails or Glass Snails are notoriously difficult to identify. At times the one below presents us with less difficulties, for it is a smelly creature. It smells like garlic and that explains the name: it doesn't live on garlic, it just smells like it. The identification however is tentative.



This could be the Garlic Snail, also known as Garlic Glass Snail (Oxychilus alliarius).

The shell below looks like an ordinary garden snail, bot it is much smaller (just slightly bigger than the previous species' shell) with a nice, ivory colour. Reaching a diameter of some 8 mm it is larger than the Round Snail. In the picture to your right both species for comparison. It is called the Clear Glass Snail and it is a nephew of the glass snails above.



This beautiful, but empty shell once belonged to a Clear Glass Snail (Aegopinella nitidula).

The snail below is a very strange thing indeed. It is hairy! Who would ever think about such a thing: a hairy shell. It is small, like the Oxychilus and seems to be less abundant in our garden. It is the Hairy Snail.


Eating Garden Snails
The garden snail, Helix aspersa, came to Britain with the Romans, who loved to eat them, they may have come earlier, in the Bronze age, but didn’t spread much. It’s the snail most cultivated for gourmet food and is known as petit gris. This site follows up a piece on the One Show (BBC1) in April 2009. It has information on how to prepare garden snails, for cooking and eating, of recipes, all in the March Archive, more on Purging in May Archive. To see my comments with slide show, click on it.





Saturday, April 24, 2010A SPRING WEED MEAL




Yesterday was sunny and dry again, and though the news said some planes were flying, we saw no sign of any. Lovely! Spring is very late this year, and we’ve had a long spell of lovely sunny weather, though often there is a chill breeze off the sea.
I went wandering around to enjoy the wonderful spring growth bursting forth everywhere. It all looked so temptingly succulent I went back to fetch a collecting basket and started picking. Nettles first, just the opening leaves at the top, I wore washing-up gloves not to get stung. Then lots of ramsons (wild garlic), it is getting close to flowering now, and the big leaves are getting coarser. I picked the young ones from the centre of the plants. They’re so abundant here I don’t have to be too careful.
All the time adding various odds and ends of edible leaves. The cow parsley is showing a few leaves in places. I only took one or two from each plant, ribwort plantain is beginning to grow, cleavers (goosegrass) is good to eat if cooked before it flowers. I read that recently in my new book “
I also read there that primrose leaves are good to eat too. I gather a few from the wild meadow and more from the garden, where I have scattered seeds from wild plants. Silverweed has just started coming into leaf, I took that from my little rock garden where it’s too abundant and would like to spread further if I gave it chance, so I was weeding at the same time. Sorrel too is a great addition to a weedy meal, it’s acidity adds a nice piquancy, and it’s nice leafy now before the flower stems start shooting, though that doesn’t stop using them through the summer too. Some young dandelions from the centre of the rosettes went in too.
Alexanders has been green all winter and always available, but I feel since the Romans were keen enough to bring it here with them it’s bitterness must have value, so I picked a generous handful of younger leaves, and noticed I had a flower bud too.


Then I went to boggy stream and picked a few water parsnip leaves, but they’re not big enough yet to be worthwhile, the same is true for the watercress. Both I gather regularly throughout the summer, but I always soak them for a while in salty water to get the tine snails (and any other creatures) to drop off, and cook them thoroughly for fear of liver fluke, as cattle graze there and drink from the stream.


I had a large mass of weeds to take home for supper, but they cook down to a much smaller amount, so you need a lot. I chopped all the weeds up, which takes ages, (I had a brief fantasy about food processors) and threw them in the pot as I did them. I tried to put those that take longest to cook in first. That’s plantain, nettles and any that have thick stems, though I cut off the thickest usually. I made sure the water weeds got well cooked too. The goosegrass and ramsons went in late on. I actually kept some of the ramsons back to add at the last minute because the garlicky flavour gets lost after just a little cooking.
I hadn’t put much water in the pot, and I tasted the dark liquor to decide what spicing I should add. None! The flavour was rich and almost meaty, it tasted better and as strong as any stock cube. Amazing! We had with some mealymeal (ground maize cooked to a porridge, the staple in southern Africa.)
A mass of cooked weeds like this can be used in many ways.
More recipes tomorrow!
Posted by Oriole at 10:59 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: eating weeds, meal, nettles, ramsons, recipes, wild, wild garlic
Wednesday, October 21, 2009See the March 09 archive for details of preparation and recipes

Posted by Oriole at 1:28 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Eat snails now, no trouble. And More TV
Autumn is a good and easy time to gather snails to eat straight away. The French do this traditionally. The snails have grown and fattened up throughout the summer, and are now hibernating. This means they have purged themselves and are dormant, but have not yet lost much weight. All you have to do is find them, and kill them in boiling water soon after gathering. Don’t keep them in a warm damp place first or they might wake up again.
If you’re ready for a snail meal, you can freeze or bottle them after boiling in stock. See the March 09 archive for details of preparation and recipes.

Another TV film crew! This time it’s for S4C, the Welsh channel, and particularly for teenagers. Since I can't speak Welsh I was not allowed to contribute any pearls of wisdom or scraps of knowledge directly to the show. I dread to think what the angle is, but I heard a lot of laughter.
Now I think: What a ridiculous thing to be famous for, eating snails. I can't really understand what’s so strange and fascinating about it. There are far more interesting things in my life.
Posted by Oriole at 1:26 PM 1 comments Links to this post
Autumn 2009
I decided to empty the vivarium of snails for the winter.
I picked out a few of the biggest to keep overwinter, hibernating in a bucket in the shed.
The rest, including some quite small, but mature snails, I cooked in a weed stock. They are in the freezer for future use.
The babies that bred in a bucket I think are too small still to overwinter successfully, but I'm keeping them and we’ll see what happens in the spring.
Posted by Oriole at 1:24 PM 1 comments Links to this post
15.6.9 I meant to cook snails tonight!
I had decided to eat the runts and small but mature snails. I gently felt the lip of each one in the vivarium, any that were soft are still growing, so I left them. There were several which looked quite small, but had a hard lips, indicating maturity. I wouldn’t want to breed from those, so I could either release them to the garden or eat them. Since there are still plenty around the house I decided to eat them and put them in a dry purging bucket to aestivate, which they did. Following my own instructions I washed them before plunging them in boiling water. As I washed them in a colander under the kitchen cold tap, they started emerging from their shells! It’s been very warm weather, so I suppose they were only waiting for a drop a water to get going. You can still kill them like that, but I don’t like the idea and would rather they were dormant, believing they suffer less. So I cleaned the aestivating bucket and put them back in. (we ate pizza instead!) They’re washed now, so in another few days I will kill them in boiling water without further ado. I think 3 days from today will be OK.
Next time I'm going to wash the snails thoroughly before putting them to aestivate, then only clean them up dry by hand, before killing them. When they’ve been killed I throw away that water anyway and then pick them from their shells. After that, I wash them very thoroughly, particularly to remove slime from the foot. I think this might be partly at least the mucus operculum, which when dry is a bit like sellophane. I actually cook them in good stock, with weeds in. and then bake them in the oven with butter sauce. There are others ways to cook them of course. There are a few recipes on this Blog, more ideas from you, dear Reader, will be posted too.
Posted by Oriole at 1:23 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Other snail websites
I found an interesting website, from the US Department of Agriculture. It’s about raising snails commercially for food. It’s also got good information on their biology.

http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/srb96-05.htm#Introduction

Winter hibernation: they can bury themselves up to a foot deep.

I had previously found a good blog by an American malacologist (snail scientist) called Aydin Örstan. You can see a PDF published by the American Malacological Society, written by him on Rearing Terrestrial Gastropoda. His blogsite goes well beyond snails, and is fascinating and fun:-- http://snailstales.blogspot.com/

Posted by Oriole at 1:09 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Friday, June 19, 2009New Zealand Nights
Today I was interviewed by Bryan Crump on New Zealand Nights, what a nice man! It’s wonderful to suddenly have a connection to the other side of the world!

I didn’t even realise that Helix aspersa had reached New Zealand from Europe where it originated. Among other things, we discussed whether they got to NZ as gourmet food and managed to get out and settle down, as I think happened in the UK, or whether they hitched lifts unnoticed on imported plants and vegetables. Any ideas? If Bryan is right, about hitchhiking snails, why have other pests not spread so readily? Perhaps snails, particularly Helix aspersa are extra good travellers.

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It would be great to get cooperation of ideas on these subjects between NZ and UK, and hopefully linking all over the world. If the snails can do it so can we! I don’t know how to get a forum going, help would be great, but some links might do it, please get in touch through the Comments, become a Follower, add your news and ideas please.

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There’s a sister site called Gaia with a link on the right, not about snails but much much wider issues, and I think much more important. Do have a look and get in touch please. I did a FreeMind Mind Map of this too, which is good because you can then read it in the order that suits you, like Gaia, the whole thing is interwoven without beginning or end, it’s not a list really. But as yet, I haven’t managed to get that onto the web.

<!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]-->

Any handy computer people or web designers that can help? Please?

Any publishers interested? I'm writing a science fiction novel too.
For recipes and more on preparing snails, go to the bottom of the page to Older Posts.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

common name: brown garden snail
scientific name: Helix aspersa Müller (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Helicidae)

Introduction - Distribution - Description - Life History - Hosts - Economic Importance - Management - Remarks - Selected References
Introduction
The brown garden snail (European brown snail) Helix (Cyptoomphalus) aspersa Müller, was described by O.F. Müller in 1774 from specimens collected in Italy. This plant feeder has been disseminated into many parts of the world intentionally as a food delicacy, accidentally by the movement of plants, and by hobbyists who collect snails. It was introduced to California in the 1850s as a source of escargot. It has adapted well to California and is very troublesome as a pest of crops and ornamentals (Capinera 2001).
adults

Snails belong to the class Gastropoda, and are related to the clams and oysters which belong to the class Pelecypoda. They prefer an undisturbed habitat with adequate moisture and good food supply. The snail body is protected by a hard shell, usually marked with spirals. Most land snails are nocturnal, but following a rain may come out of their hiding places during the day. They move with a gliding motion by means of a long flat muscular organ called a foot. Mucus, constantly secreted by glands in the foot, facilitates movement and leaves a silverlike slimy trail. The reproductive organs of both sexes occur in the same individuals and each is capable of self- fertilization, although cross fertilization is normal. Adults deposit eggs. Specimens are deposited in the Florida State Museum and the Florida State Collection of Arthropods.

Distribution
Burch (1960) reports natural distribution in Britain, western Europe, and along borders of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. It has been introduced into the Atlantic Islands, South Africa, Haiti, New Zealand, Australia, Mexico, Chile and Argentina. In the United States, Capinera (2001) reports it in California and along the west coast north to British Columbia, Canada, in most southeastern states and along the east coast north to New Jersey. However, it has not developed the serious pest status found in California. Although occasionally intercepted on plant shipments to Florida, it has not become established in this state.
Description
Shell large, globose, rather thin, imperforate or nearly so, moderately glossy, sculptured with fine wrinkles. It is yellow or horn-colored with chestnut brown spiral bands which are interrupted by yellow flecks or streaks. The aperture is roundly lunate to ovate-lunate, the lip turned back. Adult shells (four to five whorls) measure 28 to 32 mm in diameter (Burch, 1960).
various stages in life cycle

yellow coloring

Life History
Mating requires four to 12 hours. Oviposition occurs three to six days after fertilization. White spherical eggs about 1/8 inch in diameter are deposited in a nest constructed by the snail, which uses its foot to shovel soil upwards. The nest is about 1 to 1 1/2 inches deep. Basinger (1931) reported that the number of eggs laid during each oviposition averaged about 86. The egg mass is concealed by a mixture of soil with secreted mucus followed by a quantity of excrement. The number of eggs deposited at one time varies from 30 to 120, averaging 86 (Capinera 2001).
Frequency of oviposition is subject to temperature, humidity, and soil conditions. Low temperature and low humidity inhibit the activity of the snail, and dry soil is unsuitable for the preparation of a nest. During warm damp weather, ovipositions may be as frequent as once a month. Low humidity and cold temperatures greatly inhibit the activity of the snails during the fall and winter months. If each individual is capable of laying eggs once every six weeks from February to October, then approximately five ovipositions are made each year and 430 eggs laid (Basinger 1931).

During the summer months, the eggs hatch in about two weeks. The shells of hatchlings are fragile and translucent. Maturity requires about two years in southern California. In South Africa the snails take about 10 months to become mature, producing one generation a year (Gunn, 1924). When dry conditions prevail, the snail may seal itself to various objects or close the shell opening with a parchmentlike epiphragm. With the advent of humid conditions, the snail again becomes active.

Brown garden snails attain a diameter of 16 to 20 mm within one year, but 26 to 33 mm by the second year. These snails are nocturnal and feed on organic matter in the soil, bark from trees and especially on vegetation. Nearly anything growing in a vegetable or flower garden can be consumed. They normally feed only within the temperature range of 5 to 21°C (Capinera 2001).

Hosts
Buxus microphylla 'Japonica' (California boxwood), Crinum sp., Cupressus sempervirens L. (Italian cypress), Grevillea sp., Hibiscus spp., and Juniperus spp., Rosa sp., and other unidentified plants and shrubs at the Davie, Florida, infestation (1969).
Gunn (1924) listed 49 plants as hosts in South Africa:

Vegetables: cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, celery, bean, beet, brussels sprouts, lettuce, mangel, onion, peas, radish, tomato, and turnips.

Cereals: barley, oats, and wheat.

Flowers: alyssum, antirrhinum, aster, balsam, carnation, candytuft, chrysanthemum, dianthus, dahlia, delphinium, hollyhock, larkspur, lilies, marguerite, mignonette, nasturtium, pansy, pentstemon, petunia, phlox, stock, sweet-pea, verbena, and zinnia.

Trees: apple, apricot, citrus, peach, and plum. Shrubs: hibiscus, magnolia, and rose.

Economic Importance
Snails feeding on cultivated plants may become serious pests. In California, enormous populations sometimes become established in citrus groves and cause serious damage to leaves and fruit (Basinger 1931). They also cause economic damage to truck crops and ornamental plants. Large numbers of snails are a nuisance around a residence.
snails on citrus tree

Management
Management of the brown garden snail is a four-step process that involves pruning tree skirts ; banding tree trunks with copper foil or a basic copper sulfate slurry; putting out poison bait to reduce their populations; and making releases of the predatory decollate snail, Rumina decollata (UC/IPM 2000).
Habitat reduction will aid in control. Remove anything snails may hide under: boards, bags, brush and debris. During the night, place a board on the ground near damaged plants. Elevate the board with four stones placed under the corners. The snails will take shelter under the board in the morning and can be removed and then destroyed then by dropping into a jar filled with water and a little rubbing alcohol. Some birds, especially ducks, will feed on these snails. (Garofalo 2001).

Barriers of diatomaceous earth, sand or ashes provide only temporary control. With a beer trap the goal is to trap and drown snails and slugs in a shallow dish with beer placed slightly below grade so that the lip of the dish is even with the soil. However, this does not provide reliable control (Bradley 1999).

Insect Management Guide for landscape plants
Insect Management Guide for vegetables
Insect Management Guide for citrus
Insect Management Guide for fruit

Remarks
The brown garden snail has been eradicated from at least two locations in Florida since 1963 by the Division of Plant Industry. Most infestations are believed to be introduced on shipments of container-grown plants from California.
Due to the brown garden snail, various states in the United States have quarantine restrictions concerning plant materials brought in from other states. The states under quarantine include Arizona, California, Louisiana, Oregon, South Carolina and Washington.

Selected References

Basinger AJ. 1931. The European brown snail in California. University of California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 151: 1-22.

Bradley LK. (13 November 1999). Snails and slugs in the low desert. University of Arizona Cooperative Extension. http://ag.arizona.edu/maricopa/garden/html/t-tips/animals/snail.htm (28 September 2001).

Burch JB. 1960. Some snails and slugs of quarantine significance to the United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture Research Service 82: 1-70.

Capinera JL. 2001. Handbook of Vegetable Pests. Academic Press, San Diego. 729 pp.

Garofalo JF, Weissling T, Duke ER, Vedaee J, Bishop L. (August 2001). Snail and slug management in south Florida. Miami_Dade County Cooperative Extension Service. http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/programs/commorn/publications/Snail-Slug-Factsheet.PDF (28 September 2001).

Gunn D. 1924. The brown and grey snails: Two destructive garden pests. Journal of the Department of Agriculture (Union of South Africa) Reprint No. 42: 3-10.

UC/IPM. (August 2000). Citrus brown garden snail. UC Pest Management Guidelines. University of California. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r107500111.html (28 September 2001).

Wallace S. (1 August 1999). Helix aspersa (Müller), European brown garden snail. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/ppc/science/pps/datasheets/helaspe.shtml (10 October 2001).


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Author: G.W. Dekle, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry; and T.R. Fasulo, University of Florida.
Originally published as DPI Entomology Circular 83. Updated for this publication.
Photographs: Division of Plant Industry; and Paul M. Choate, University of Florida
Project Coordinator: Thomas R. Fasulo, University of Florida
Publication Number: EENY-240
Publication Date: October 2001. Latest revision: August 2002.
Copyright 2001-2002 University of Florida


Featured Creatures
Department of Entomology and Nematology
Division of Plant Industry
Electronic Data Information Source

por oriol en 13:28 0 comentarios Links to this post Enlaces a esta entrada Eat snails now, no trouble. Comer caracoles ahora, ningún problema. And More TV Y más televisión
Autumn is a good and easy time to gather snails to eat straight away. El otoño es un buen momento y fácil de recolectar caracoles para comer inmediatamente. The French do this traditionally. Los franceses ello tradicionalmente. The snails have grown and fattened up throughout the summer, and are now hibernating. Los caracoles han crecido y engordado durante todo el verano, y están hibernando ahora. This means they have purged themselves and are dormant, but have not yet lost much weight. Esto significa que se han purgado y están inactivas, pero aún no han perdido mucho peso. All you have to do is find them, and kill them in boiling water soon after gathering. Todo lo que tienes que hacer es encontrarlos y matarlos en agua hirviendo poco después de la recolección. Don't keep them in a warm damp place first or they might wake up again. No los guarde en un lugar húmedo y caliente primero o puede despertar de nuevo.
If you're ready for a snail meal, you can freeze or bottle them after boiling in stock. Si usted está listo para una comida de caracoles, se puede congelar o una botella que después de la ebullición en la acción. See the March 09 archive for details of preparation and recipes. Ver el archivo de 09 de marzo para los detalles de preparación y recetas.

Another TV film crew! Otro equipo de la película de televisión! This time it's for S4C, the Welsh channel, and particularly for teenagers. Esta vez es para S4C, el canal de Gales, y en particular para los adolescentes. Since I can't speak Welsh I was not allowed to contribute any pearls of wisdom or scraps of knowledge directly to the show. Ya que no puedo hablar galés no se le permitió contribuir con perlas de sabiduría o de pedazos de conocimiento directamente a la demostración. I dread to think what the angle is, but I heard a lot of laughter. No quiero ni pensar lo que es el ángulo, pero he oído hablar mucho de la risa.
Now I think: What a ridiculous thing to be famous for, eating snails. Ahora pienso: ¡Qué cosa más ridícula que ser famoso por, comer caracoles. I can't really understand what's so strange and fascinating about it. Realmente no puedo entender lo que es tan extraño y fascinante al respecto. There are far more interesting things in my life. Hay muchas más cosas interesantes en mi vida. Posted by Oriole at 1:26 PM 1 comments Publicado por oriol en 13:26 1 comentarios Links to this post Enlaces a esta entrada Autumn 2009 Otoño 2009
I decided to empty the vivarium of snails for the winter. Decidí vaciar el vivero de caracoles para el invierno.
I picked out a few of the biggest to keep overwinter, hibernating in a bucket in the shed. Elegí algunos de los más grandes para mantener durante el invierno, hibernando en un cubo en el cobertizo.
The rest, including some quite small, but mature snails, I cooked in a weed stock. El resto, incluyendo algunas muy pequeñas, pero los caracoles adultos, yo cocinaba en un caldo de malezas. They are in the freezer for future use. Ellos están en el congelador para su uso futuro.
The babies that bred in a bucket I think are too small still to overwinter successfully, but I'm keeping them and we'll see what happens in the spring. Los bebés que han criado en un cubo creo que son demasiado pequeños aún para pasar el invierno con éxito, pero los voy a mantener y vamos a ver lo que ocurre en la primavera. Posted by Oriole at 1:24 PM 1 comments Publicado por oriol en 13:24 1 comentarios Links to this post Enlaces a esta entrada 15.6.9 I meant to cook snails tonight! 15.6.9 me refería a cocinar los caracoles esta noche!
I had decided to eat the runts and small but mature snails. Yo había decidido a comer los polluelos y los caracoles pequeños pero maduros. I gently felt the lip of each one in the vivarium, any that were soft are still growing, so I left them. Me sentía suavemente el borde de cada uno en el vivero, cualquiera que estaban blandas todavía están creciendo, así que les dejó. There were several which looked quite small, but had a hard lips, indicating maturity. Había varios que parecía bastante pequeña, pero tenía una boca dura, lo que indica la madurez. I wouldn't want to breed from those, so I could either release them to the garden or eat them. No me gustaría criar de ellos, así que bien podría ponerlos en libertad al jardín o comemos. Since there are still plenty around the house I decided to eat them and put them in a dry purging bucket to aestivate, which they did. Dado que todavía hay un montón en la casa me decidí a comer y los puso en un cubo seco para purgar estivan, lo que hicieron. Following my own instructions I washed them before plunging them in boiling water. A raíz de mi propias instrucciones me lavé las manos antes de sumergirse en agua hirviendo. As I washed them in a colander under the kitchen cold tap, they started emerging from their shells! Como me lavé las manos en un colador debajo de la cocina fría de la llave, empezaron a salir de su concha! It's been very warm weather, so I suppose they were only waiting for a drop a water to get going. Ha sido un tiempo muy caliente, así que supongo que sólo esperaban una caída de agua para ponerse en marcha. You can still kill them like that, but I don't like the idea and would rather they were dormant, believing they suffer less. Aún pueden matar así, pero no me gusta la idea y prefiere que se inactiva, creyendo que sufren menos. So I cleaned the aestivating bucket and put them back in. (we ate pizza instead!) They're washed now, so in another few days I will kill them in boiling water without further ado. Así que limpiar el cubo estivando y volver a ponérselos (comimos pizza vez!) Son lavados ahora, así que en unos días más voy a matar en agua hirviendo sin más trámite. I think 3 days from today will be OK. Creo que tres días a partir de hoy va a estar bien.
Next time I'm going to wash the snails thoroughly before putting them to aestivate, then only clean them up dry by hand, before killing them. La próxima vez me voy a lavar los caracoles a fondo antes de ponerlos a estivan, sólo limpiarlas en seco a mano, antes de matarlas. When they've been killed I throw away that water anyway and then pick them from their shells. Cuando han sido asesinados tiro a la basura que el agua de todos modos y luego elige alguno de sus conchas. After that, I wash them very thoroughly, particularly to remove slime from the foot. Después de eso, lavarlos muy bien, sobre todo para quitar barro de los pies. I think this might be partly at least the mucus operculum, which when dry is a bit like sellophane. Creo que esto podría deberse en parte al menos, el opérculo moco, que cuando está seco es un poco como sellophane. I actually cook them in good stock, with weeds in. and then bake them in the oven with butter sauce. De hecho, me cuecen en buen caldo, con las malas hierbas cm y luego hornee en el horno con salsa de mantequilla. There are others ways to cook them of course. También existen otras maneras de cocinarlos por supuesto. There are a few recipes on this Blog, more ideas from you, dear Reader, will be posted too. Hay algunas recetas en este blog, lector más ideas de usted, querido, se publicarán también. Posted by Oriole at 1:23 PM 0 comments Publicado por oriol en 13:23 0 comentarios Links to this post Enlaces a esta entrada Other snail websites Otros sitios de caracol
I found an interesting website, from the US Department of Agriculture. He encontrado una web interesante, desde el Departamento de Agricultura de EE.UU.. It's about raising Es acerca de la crianza snails commercially for food. caracoles comercialmente para la alimentación. It's also got good information on their biology. También se consigue una buena información sobre su biología.

http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/srb96-05.htm#Introduction http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/srb96-05.htm # Introducción
Winter hibernation: Invierno de hibernación: they can bury themselves up to a foot deep. que pueden se entierran hasta un pie de profundidad.

I had previously found a good blog by an American malacologist (snail scientist) called Aydin Örstan. Me había encontrado con anterioridad un buen blog por un paleontólogo estadounidense (científico del caracol) llama Örstan Aydin. You can see a PDF published by the American Malacological Society, written by him on Rearing Terrestrial Gastropoda. Se puede ver un PDF publicado por la Sociedad Americana de Malacología, escrito por él sobre la cría Terrestre Gastropoda. His blogsite goes well beyond snails, and is fascinating and fun:-- http://snailstales.blogspot.com/ Su blogsite va más allá de los caracoles, y es fascinante y divertido: - http://snailstales.blogspot.com/
© The Malacological Society of London 1999


FIELD OBSERVATIONS ON FEEDING OF THE LAND SNAIL HELIX ASPERSA MÜLLER
J. IGLESIAS and J. CASTILLEJO
Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Feeding of the land snail Helix aspersa (Müller) was observed at monthly intervals. Three natural populations in Galicia (NW-Spain) were studied. At two sites only a few plants constituted the bulk of the diet and in spring the snails' diet had the highest diversity (H'). In the third population feeding and distribution of Helix aspersa (Müller) were observed in a small plot with permanent patches of Urtica dioica. Nearly one half of feeding snails fed upon Urtica dioica. Most of the other observations were on Mentha suaveolens, Ranunculus repens and Gramineae. The diversity of the snails' diet showed seasonal variation with the maximum in the autumn months. Comparison between the availability of the different plant species and their contribution to the snails' diet showed that the snails did not eat at random; Urtica dioica was eaten much more than expected from its occurrence and grasses were strongly under-represented in the snails' diet. Temporal changes of availability were significantly correlated with the amounts eaten in the case of Urtica, but not for the other food plants. The distribution of the snails in the plot was significantly correlated with that of Urtica. Chemical analyses of the food plants revealed Urtica as the species with the higher protein, ash and calcium contents. The strong preference of Helix aspersa for Urtica dioica could be explained by the value of Urtica as food or by its suitability as habitat for the snails. The largest proportions of green material in the snails' diet occurred in the spring and juveniles ate more green material than adults in the three populations.
B

The United States International Trade Commission
http://dataweb.usitc.gov
Select "Interactive Tariff and Trade DataWeb Login"
Create an account. Login in.
Create a New Query/Report. When you create this report, use the "Create a New Commodity List" button in the "Select All Commodities or a Pre-Defined List" section to develop a report that calculates statistics for snails.
The HTS codes are:
0307.60.0000: SNAILS, OTHER THAN SEA SNAILS, LIVE, FRESH, CHILLED, FROZEN, DRIED, SALTED OR IN BRINE
1605.90.5500: SNAILS, OTHER THAN SEA SNAILS, PREPARED OR PRESERVED
The 5-digit SITC code is:
01293 - SNAILS, EXCEPT SEA SNAILS, FRESH CHILLED...
B

The United States International Trade Commission
http://dataweb.usitc.gov
Select "Interactive Tariff and Trade DataWeb Login"
Create an account. Login in.
Create a New Query/Report. When you create this report, use the "Create a New Commodity List" button in the "Select All Commodities or a Pre-Defined List" section to develop a report that calculates statistics for snails.
The HTS codes are:
0307.60.0000: SNAILS, OTHER THAN SEA SNAILS, LIVE, FRESH, CHILLED, FROZEN, DRIED, SALTED OR IN BRINE
1605.90.5500: SNAILS, OTHER THAN SEA SNAILS, PREPARED OR PRESERVED
The 5-digit SITC code is:
01293 - SNAILS, EXCEPT SEA SNAILS, FRESH CHILLED...
.
The United States International Trade Commission
http://dataweb.usitc.gov
Select "Interactive Tariff and Trade DataWeb Login"
Create an account. Login in.
Create a New Query/Report. When you create this report, use the "Create a New Commodity List" button in the "Select All Commodities or a Pre-Defined List" section to develop a report that calculates statistics for snails.
The HTS codes are:
0307.60.0000: SNAILS, OTHER THAN SEA SNAILS, LIVE, FRESH, CHILLED, FROZEN, DRIED, SALTED OR IN BRINE
1605.90.5500: SNAILS, OTHER THAN SEA SNAILS, PREPARED OR PRESERVED
The 5-digit SITC code is:
01293 - SNAILS, EXCEPT SEA SNAILS, FRESH CHILLED...
From Spain purchased garden snails
Significant amounts
<sarkroquet@gmail.com>
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Northern California garden snails are “escargot”
Jump to Comments

Yes, those brown and yellow garden snails you host in your backyard are the same animals that are served as a delicacy in Europe. In fact, they were imported from France in the 19th century for that purpose, but the American palate did not cooperate. They have migrated to the wild.

the local common garden snail is the European brown — Helix aspersa. They were imported here in the early 1850s by a Frenchman who intended to sell them as food, but the market here during the Gold Rush was too unsophisticated for snails. He ended up dumping some snails, and another collection escaped. Snails are hermaphroditic, so of course they reproduced like crazy. …The real enemy of snails is bad weather — snails need a mild climate to survive in, because they freeze. They also don’t do well if it’s too hot and dry. They don’t live all over the United States, you know. People in Wisconsin never have snails in their garden. Neither do my Italian grandparents in New Jersey..

As far as preparation, there is only one problem:

What you have to do first with snails is purify them, because — well, for all you know, they might have just eaten some snail bait. They don’t put arsenic in snail bait anymore, but a lot of snail-bait products do contain insecticide, and carbaryl is not something you want to eat.

Typically, the purification ritual lasts for two weeks. You purge snails by feeding them greens or corn meal — something like that. I just feed them corn meal, and I give them water and I change their food almost daily until I know that their systems are clean.

What kind of pen do you use? If someone wants to venture into snail ranching, what equipment should they buy?

Don’t use a cardboard box, because snails can chew through cardboard with their teeth, their little rasping mouthparts. A friend of mine keeps his snails in an old bathtub. I use a big plastic recycling bin. Remember to keep it covered, or they will escape.

Then it’s pretty routine:

After your snails are purified, how do you cook them?

You boil them first for 10-15 minutes. This forms an incredibly disgusting scum that you must keep cleaning off and cleaning off and cleaning off the top until it’s clear — you might even need to change the water. When the scum is gone, you know the snails are okay — they’re done.

After the snails die, most of them separate from their shells, but some you need to pull out — that’s easy. When they’re all removed, you just chop up the snails, dice them up fine and mix them with olive oil, garlic, butter and parsley. Mix them all together, stuff everything back into the snail shells and then bake them until they’re hot and bubbly.

If you don’t want to deal with the difficulty of stuffing shells and eating them out of shells, you can just cook them inside mushroom caps or in baking dishes that have little depressions. Italians also sometimes use snails in pasta sauce.

So grab that recipe book, and get busy. I’m sure your neighbors will be happy to have you “hunt” their property.

7 Comments
Filed under San Francisco, food/drink
Tags: California, escargot, food, garden, gardening, gold rush, history, San Francisco, Sluggo, slugs, snails

7 Comments

Signe Hanson
October 2, 2008 at 7:29 pm What is the lowest temperature for snails (Helix aspersa) to overwinter? You said your grandparents in New Jersey don’t have them, but can you narrow that down?

Thanks.

Reply

Willow Raevynwood
August 7, 2009 at 4:37 pm I live in Northern California and you don’t know how happy this info has made me! I love escargot and have always wanted to try my hand at making some but haven’t been able to find a decent place to obtain the snails. Now I know I don’t have to look further than my own backyard. =) Thanks!!

Reply

seesdifferent
August 7, 2009 at 6:33 pm well, if you need more, just shoot me a note and I’ll give you mine, also.

Reply

Denise Adams
July 2, 2010 at 7:14 pm Hello,
I live near San Francisco and I’m having a Bastille Day party and I’m trying to find some live snails… There aren’t any in my garden…
Do you really have some extras?
Thanks for letting me know.
Denise


lin davis
April 14, 2010 at 9:10 pm does it matter what you feed them and how much water do you give the little darlings…If I put my shoebox in a plastic box will they be ok or will they die and be a disgusting mess? Have put cornmeal and carrot peelings in with them. Have some swiss chard …what is best for flavor. I have heard thyme and dill. Am excited about having favorite appetizer and not spending a small fortune in these times.

Reply

Carolyn Redfern
August 16, 2010 at 10:53 pm I live in Virgijia and i am looking for live helix aspersa, escargot, to cultivale. my first step is to find a source and then I can apply with the state to breed in a climate controlled indoor pavilion. Please reply
Helix aspersa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
Helix aspersa

Helix aspersa
Conservation status
NE[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Gastropoda

(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
informal group Pulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora

informal group Sigmurethra


Superfamily: Helicoidea

Family: Helicidae

Genus: Helix

Species: H. aspersa

Binomial name
Helix aspersa
(O. F. Müller, 1774)[2]

Helix aspersa, known by the common name garden snail, is a species of land snail, a pulmonate gastropod that is one of the best-known of all terrestrial molluscs. It has two recent synonyms: Cornu aspersum and Cantareus aspersus.[3]

Although this species is edible, it is often regarded as a pest in gardens, especially where it has been accidentally introduced.

Contents [hide]
1 Distribution
2 Description
3 Behaviour
4 Ecology
5 Reproduction
6 Relationship with Humans
7 References
8 External links

[edit] Distribution

A hibernaculum on a doocot in Eglinton, ScotlandThis species is native to the Mediterranean region (including Egypt[4]) and western Europe, from northwest Africa and Iberia east to Asia Minor, and north to the British Isles.

It comprises a set of north African endemic forms and subspecies that were described at the beginning of the 20th century on the basis of shell characteristics. The most common one, Cornu spersum aspersum (synonym Helix aspersa aspersa), has become very abundant in all man-disturbed habitats in regions with a Mediterranean, temperate and even subtropical climate.[5]

Cornu aspersum is a typically anthropochorous species which is nowadays widespread throughout the world in many zones with climates differing from the original Mediterranean one. Its presence is reported on the American continents, as well as in Australia and in Asia. Therefore, the first explanation for resemblances between populations located on either side of the Mediterranean could be passive transport due to human activities. Transfers might have started as nearly as the Neolithic revolution (around 8500 BP) and nowadays they continue occurring in giving rise in some cases to catastrophic destruction of habitats.[5]

It is very widely introduced and naturalised elsewhere in the world[6][7] and its non-native distribution include other parts of Europe: Bohemia in the Czech Republic since 2008;[8] southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, North America and southern South America.[9] It was introduced to California as a food animal in the 1850s and is now a notorious agricultural pest there, especially in citrus groves. Many areas have quarantines established for preventing the importation of the snail in plant matter.

[edit] Description

Helix aspersaThe adult bears a hard, thin calcareous shell 25–40 mm in diameter and 25–35 mm high, with four or five whorls. The shell is somewhat variable in colour and shade but is generally dark brown or chestnut with yellow stripes, flecks, or streaks.

The body is soft and slimy, brownish-grey, and is retracted entirely into the shell when the animal is inactive or threatened. During dry and cold weather, the aperture of the shell is sealed with a thin membrane of dried mucus which is known as an epiphragm, which helps the snail retain moisture. The resultant quiescent periods are known as aestivation and hibernation respectively. When hibernating, Helix aspersa avoids ice formation by altering the osmotic components of its blood (or haemolymph), and can survive temperatures as low as -5°C.[10] During aestivation, the mantle collar has the unique ability to change its permeability to water.[11] In combination with an osmoregulatory mechanism similar to that seen during hibernation this allows Helix aspersa to survive several months of aestivation.

During times of activity the head and foot emerge. The head bears four tentacles, the upper two of which have eye-like light sensors, and the lower two of which are smaller, tactile and olfactory sensory structures. The tentacles can be retracted into the head. The mouth is located beneath the tentacles, and contains a chitinous radula which the snail uses to scrape and manipulate food particles.

[edit] Behaviour

Helix aspersa feeding in captivityThe snail's muscular foot contracts to move the animal, and secretes mucus to facilitate locomotion by reducing friction against the substrate.[7] It moves at a top speed of 1.3 centimetres per second[12] (47 meters per hour or ~50 yards per hour),[13] and has a strong homing instinct, readily returning to a regular hibernation site.[14]

[edit] Ecology

Helix aspersaThe garden snail is a herbivore and has a wide range of host plants. It feeds on numerous types of fruit trees, vegetable crops, garden flowers, and cereals. It is a food source for many other animals, including small mammals, many bird species, lizards, frogs, centipedes, predatory insects, and predatory terrestrial snails.[citation needed]

Helix aspersa can be used as an indicator of environmental contamination, as its shell acts as a site for deposition of toxic heavy metals, such as lead.[15]

[edit] Reproduction

Mating Helix aspersa.Like other Pulmonata, Helix aspersa is a hermaphrodite, producing both male and female gametes. Reproduction is usually sexual, although self-fertilisation can occur.[16] During a mating session of several hours, two snails exchange sperm. The garden snail uses love darts during mating.

After about two weeks approximately 80 spherical pearly-white eggs are laid into crevices in the topsoil. Up to six batches of 80 eggs can be laid in a year.[17] The size of the egg is 4 mm.[18]

The young snails take one to two years to reach maturity.[7]

[edit] Relationship with Humans

Garden snail in Israel.The species is an agricultural and garden pest, an edible delicacy, and occasionally a household pet. In French cuisine, it is known as petit gris, and is served as escargot. The snails are farm-raised or bred as a hobby and eaten with garlic butter or cream sauces. Their texture is slightly chewy. The practice of rearing snails for food is known as heliciculture.

There is a variety of snail control measures that gardeners and farmers can take to reduce damage. Traditional pesticides are still in use, as are many less toxic control options such as concentrated garlic or wormwood solutions. Copper metal is repellent to snails. A copper band around the trunk of a tree will prevent snails from reaching the foliage and fruit.

The decollate snail (Rumina decollata) will capture and eat garden snails, so it is sometimes introduced as a biological pest control agent.

Recently, this snail has gained popularity as the chief ingredient in skin creams and gels (crema/gel de caracol) sold within the Latino community and used for wrinkles, scars, dry skin, and acne.[citation

SNAILS GARDEN is a farm where we're breeding and making training courses about african snails since 2002. Our farm is so much authenticated witch this specyfic product, that from a few years we like to improve our offer. Now We're produce and reproduce a big ammounts of african snails. Our offer is going to be extended for snail's eggs to cavior use and snail's secretion for a cosmetic creams. Regarding Experience gained in this few Years witch good organisation and Profesional equiped production line, we have pleasure to propose Our offer :

OFFER (Live snails)

1. Winniczki Snails / Helix Pomatia / culturded from ecologic region of
Poland (Warmia i Mazury). Weight 20-50g, shell diameter 30-35 mm
- packed in airy bags,5-8 kg each.

2. breeded snails / Helix Aspersa Maxima/
called Gros-gris (big grey)/ weight 15-25g, shell diameter from 35 to 45 mm
- packed in airy bags, 5-8 kg each.

3. breeded snails / Helix Aspersa Muller/
- called Petit-gris ( small grey ) /weight 6-12g, shell dimension 25-35 mm/
- packed in airy bags, 5-8 kg each.

All snails are cleanded/defecated, dryied, latent in temp. of 6 C. Packed in
airy bags 5kg each. Bags are in unreturnable wooden transport cases.

There is posibility packing snails in nylon bags for special requirements

Shells are hard and wrapped. All snails was feed by natural plant pasturage.
Our Farm have veterinary certyficate number with allow us to
produce/reproduce and trade comestible land snails !

We are more to welcome for cooperation.

snails garden



No-dash-here, you've found The Real Garden Helper! Gardening on the Web since 1997

Slug and Snail Control in the Garden
Ahhhhhhhh! The joys of springtime abound...
The sun is shining, the sky is blue...
The songbirds are singing their sweet melodies to greet you...
As you stroll through your gardens,
admiring the beauty and colors, enjoying the fresh fragrances
of all of your favorite new blossoms as they open...
And just then...
You step on a icky, nasty old slugggg!
Pop! Slip! ICK!
You've been Slimed!
I hate slugs!
Fight Back Now! Together we can win!
Shh.... Here's how we'll do it.....
Get to know your enemy 'The SLUG'... our slimy adversary ¹

All about the private lives of Slugs....
Slugs may be a very serious problem to you if you live in the Northwest or other moisture laden areas of the country. A single lawn prawn can successfully remove an entire row of seedlings from your garden in no time at all. He can turn a perfect plant into swiss cheese over night and return to the safety of his hideaway, leaving you to wonder what the heck happened......
As slugs wander about, doing their evil little slug deeds, they leave behind them a trail of slime which amounts to nothing less than a road sign for themselves and every other slug to follow to the grand feast.
To make the situation even worse, slugs are hermaphrodites, they each have both male and female reproductive systems.
Yep, these slimebags can uhh...... uhhhh....
make love with themselves, and in the privacy of their own abode, each he~she slug will literally single handedly produce two to three dozen ravenous offspring several times a year.
That's sick!
The egg clusters look like little piles of whitish jelly filled, 'BB' sized balls.
The eggs will begin to hatch in anywhere from 10 days to three weeks or longer, and these ugly sluglings are born with a ravenous appetite! They eat so much that they can mature from egg to adulthood in as little as six weeks.... and each one start their own families.
Destroy the eggs... whenever and wherever you find them! A good shake from your salt shaker will quickly do the job!
Slugs may live for several years, getting larger with proportionately larger appetites each year. Now, do you really want to go out to your garden some morning and find an eighteen inch Brown Slug eating whole trees?
No thank you...
Organic ways to Control Slugs and Snails
We may never completely win the war by destroying every last snail and slug, but we owe it to our plants to fight them with every effective and safe method we can find. Every small battle won means that hundreds of future slugs will never hatch.
As with any battle plan, it is a great advantage to be able to set the field. Its easy! Cleaning up your garden will eliminate most of the places where the slugs hide, sleep, and reproduce.
•Pulling the weeds from your garden is something you need to do anyway. As you pull each weed, you remove a potential slug outpost.
•Keep all decaying matter cleaned out of your garden beds. While leaves make a good mulch, once they begin to compost they become food and shelter for slugs and snails.
•Prune the branches of any shrubs which are laying on the ground. Keep the old leaves and such cleaned out. By doing this you will have destroyed yet another slug haven!
•Cultivate your soil regularly to keep the dirt clods broken up, and unearth any slugs which may have burrowed under the surface.
•The shaded areas beneath decks can be a slug arena: keep them weed and litter free.
•Just about anything can become a slug home. Boards, rocks, pots and other gizmos should be kept out of the garden.
•Keep the lawn edges trimmed. Slugs will congregate under the umbrella of unkept grass.
Slug stickers, salt and stale beer
For the sake of our environment, please try some of these safe and simple methods to get rid of your slug problem... before you resort to chemical warfare. Hand to hand combat

•Keep slug pokers stuck around the garden at random. Meet your enemy, one on one... Your weapon is at hand, impale them!
•Fill a small bowl with stale beer. Put it in the areas where the slugs are active. Stale beer attracts the slugs and they drown. You may also use grape juice or a tea made from yeast, honey and water.
•An early morning stroll around the garden, salt shaker in hand will often result in many casualties for the bad guys.
•Destroy any and ALL slug eggs you find!
•Bait and destroy tactics work. Set a pile of slightly dampened dry dog food in an area frequented by slugs. In the morning and evening visit the feeding station a few times.... slug poker in hand!
Natural Slug Barriers
•Cedar bark or gravel chips spread around your plant will irritate and dehydrate slugs.
•The sharp edges of crushed eggshells around the plants will cut and kill slugs. The calcium in the eggshells is a good soil amendment anyway!
•Sprinkle a line of lime around your plants. (Obviously this won't work around plants requiring a more acidic soil)
•Certain herbs (Rosemary, lemon balm,wormwood, mints, tansy, oak leaves, needles from conifers and seaweed will repel slugs. However using a mulch of these plants will only turn the slugs away, in search of other food sources.
•Oat bran will kill slugs when they eat it... sprinkle some around.
•Enlist allies..... snakes, ducks, geese, toads, and Rhode Island Reds would enjoy helping you out as they dine on your slugs.
Your Garden Helper Surprise Tactics...
Try as you might, the war against slugs will go on as long as there are gardens. You will never win, but you can keep them under control. Remember that for every slug you destroy, you are preventing countless generations of that slug's offspring.
•You may want to consider offering a bounty on slugs in your neighborhood. It might amaze you how many slugs an ambitious young person can gather up at a nickel a head...
•Organize a 'Slug Derby' with some small prize for the biggest slug, the ugliest slug, person with the most captured slugs.... A grand event for any neighborhood, to be sure!
A Garden Helper Tip regarding Slug Slime
As you wage your war on slugs and snails, you are almost certain to be 'slimed' at least once. YUK!
Mix up a little warm water and vinegar, and use this formula to remove the slime from your hands like magic!
Slug Bait and Poison Safety
At times, when the situation can not be resolved organically, it is fine to go ahaed and use an appropriate chemical treatment... as long as you take any necessary steps to assure it is done safely!
It becomes your primary and sole responsibility when using chemical baits and poisons is make sure children, pets, small critters, good creatures are denied access to the poison. Commercial slug bait products can be purchased in the form of meal, pellets, powder, granules, liquid and gel. Each form requires different handling methods. Always read and follow the product's instructions to the letter!

•Make traps to collect slugs out of plastic pop bottles. Cut the bottle in half and then invert the top part of the bottle into the bottom part to create a no escape entryway. The slug bait can be placed inside the bottle and will draw the slugs in where they will die and await disposal.



•Cut a one inch 'V' notch in the rim of a cool whip bowl. Invert the bowl in the garden over the slug bait, and place a heavy enough rock on top of it to keep it secure.
•At the very least, cover the bait with a weighted piece of wood or an old shingle to prevent access to the poison. Place a few 1-2" rocks under one edge of the board to hold it off the ground and the slugs will think this new 'cavern' is a cozy new Home Sweet Home.... WRONG!
•Commercial, disposable slug traps may be purchased at many garden centers.
Quite a bit more expensive, but they work...
















Common snail, garden snail
Helix aspersa
Because of their moist skin, common snails are most active in damp weather and at night.



Physical description
Common snails have pale grey moist skin. At the front end are four tentacles, the shorter two are for feeling and the longer pair are eye stalks. The shell of these snails is light brown with darker brown bands following the spiral of the shell. The shell colouration varies in its intensity from pale yellow to almost black.



Distribution
They are common and widespread in Britain and Europe.



Habitat
Common snails live in varied habitats. They are often found in gardens, parks, forests and dunes.



Diet
They are herbivores and feed on decaying vegetation, algae, fungi, lichens and plant leaves. As a part of their herbivorous diet they often feed on garden plants and are considered by some to be pests. Common snails have a symbiotic bacteria in their crop that enables them to digest cellulose - they have been known to feed on damp paper and cardboard.



Behaviour
Because of their moist skin, common snails are most active in damp weather and at night. When conditions become too dry, the snail will retreat into its shell and seal the entrance with a parchment-like barrier known as an epiphragm. Snails can often be found in this state under rocks in gardens or on a wall in a sheltered corner. When sealed away like this the snail goes into a state of suspended animation and can survive for several months without water.

Common snails feed by scraping a ribbon-like tongue covered in horny teeth called a radula, over their food. This allows them to scrape algae and lichen from the surface of rocks and walls. You can sometimes see the trails they leave behind as they eat their way through the algae on a damp wall.



Reproduction
Common snails, like all land snails, are hermaphrodites. This means that they possess both male and female reproductive organs. Despite this they still need to find another snail to mate with. When two snails meet during the breeding season (late spring or early summer), mating is initiated by one snail piercing the skin of the other snail with a calcified 'love dart'. The exact purpose of the 'love dart' is not fully understood but it seems to stimulate the other snail into exchanging small packets of sperm. After mating is complete the snails will produce eggs internally, which are fertilised by the sperm that has been exchanged.

Up to about a month after mating the snail lays about a hundred small white eggs in a nest underground in damp soil. If the conditions remain suitable for the eggs, snails will begin to hatch after about 14 days. Newly hatched snails have a small fragile shell and it takes two years for them to reach maturity.



Conservation status
Common snails are not listed as endangered on IUCN Red List.



Notes
This snail is closely related to Helix pomiata, the edible snail which is commonly used for cooking in France.

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Helix pomatia, a species of land snail.
A Roman Snail sealed in its shell with a calcareous epiphragm.Further reading: Gastropoda
Snail is a common name for almost all members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells in the adult stage. When the word is used in a general sense, it includes sea snails, land snails and freshwater snails. Otherwise snail-like creatures that lack a shell (or have only a very small one) are called slugs.

One species of land snail, the Giant African Snail, can grow to be 15 inches (38 cm) from snout to tail, and weigh 2 pounds (0.91 kg). The largest living species of sea snail is Syrinx aruanus which has a shell that can measure up to 91 cm (36 in) in length, and the whole animal with the shell can weigh up to 18 kg (40 lb).

Snails can be found in a very wide range of environments including ditches, deserts, and the abyssal depths of the sea. Although many people are familiar with terrestrial snails, land snails are in the minority. Marine snails constitute the majority of snail species, and have much greater diversity and a greater biomass. Numerous kinds of snail can also be found in fresh waters. Many snails are herbivorous, though a few land species and many marine species are omnivores or predatory carnivores.

Snails that respire using a lung belong to the group Pulmonata, while those with gills form a paraphyletic group; in other words, snails with gills are divided into a number of taxonomic groups that are not very closely related. Snails with lungs and with gills have diversified widely enough over geological time that a few species with gills can be found on land, numerous species with a lung can be found in freshwater, and a few species with a lung can be found in the sea.

Most snails have thousands of microscopic tooth-like structures located on a ribbon-like tongue called a radula. The radula works like a file, ripping the food into small pieces.

Contents [hide]
1 Types of snails by habitat
2 Slugs
3 Snails in cuisine
4 Agriculture
5 Cultural depictions
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

[edit] Types of snails by habitat
Main articles: Land snail and Freshwater snail
[edit] Slugs
Main article: Slug
Gastropod species which lack a conspicuous shell are commonly called slugs rather than snails, although, other than having a reduced shell or no shell at all, there are really no appreciable differences between a slug and a snail except in habitat and behavior. A shell-less animal is much more maneuverable and compressible, and thus even quite large land slugs can take advantage of habitats or retreats with very little space, squeezing themselves into places that would be inaccessible to a similar-sized snail, such as under loose bark on trees or under stone slabs, logs or wooden boards lying on the ground.

Taxonomic families of land slugs and sea slugs occur within numerous larger taxonomic groups of shelled species. In other words, the reduction or loss of the shell has evolved many times independently within several very different lineages of gastropods, thus the various families of slugs are very often not closely related to one another.

[edit] Snails in cuisine

Escargot cooked with garlic and parsley butter in a shell (with a €0.02 coin, approx 19 mm across, as a scale object).Snails provide an easily harvested source of protein to many people around the world. Land snails, freshwater snails and sea snails are all eaten in various different countries (principally Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Belgium, Laos, Cambodia and parts of the U.S.A.).

This section requires expansion.

Land snails in human cuisine
Freshwater snails in human cuisine
Snail farming
Escargot
[edit] Agriculture
In addition to the farming of edible snails, they also impact agriculture as a pest. Snails and slugs destroy crops by eating roots, leaves, stems and fruits. They are able to abrade and consume a large variety of plants with the abrasive radula. Metaldehyde-containing baits are frequently used for snail control, though they should be used with caution as they are toxic to dogs and cats. [1]

[edit] Cultural depictions

Moche land snails (Scutalus sp.), 200 AD. Larco Museum Collection, Lima, Peru.Due to its slowness, the snail has traditionally been seen as a symbol of laziness. In Judeo-Christian culture, it has often been viewed as a manifestation of the deadly sin of sloth.[2] Psalms 58:8 uses snail slime as a metaphorical punishment.

Snails were widely noted and used in divination.[2] The Greek poet Hesiod wrote that snails signified the time to harvest by climbing the stalks, while the Aztec moon god Tecciztecatl bore a snail shell on his back. This symbolised rebirth; the snail's penchant for appearing and disappearing was analogised with the moon.[3] More recently, Carl Jung noted that the snail was representative of the self in dreams. In psychology, the soft insides are analogous to the subconscious, as the shell is the conscious.[2]

One expert, Professor Ronald Chase of McGill University in Montreal, has suggested that the ancient myth of Cupid's arrows might be based on early observations of the love dart behavior of the land snail species Helix aspersa.[4]

In contemporary speech, the expression "a snail's pace" is often used to describe a slow, inefficient process.

The phrase "snail mail" is used to mean regular postal service delivery of paper messages as opposed to the delivery of E-mail or electronic mail, which is virtually instantaneous.

[edit] See also
Pasilalinic-sympathetic compass
Gastropod shell
[edit] References
1.^ "Pests in Gardens and Landscapes". University of California, Davis. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7427.html. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
2.^ a b c de Vries, Ad (1976). Dictionary of Symbols and Imagery. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. p. 430. ISBN 0-7204-8021-3.
3.^ Cooper, JC (1992). Symbolic and Mythological Animals. London: Aquarian Press. p. 213. ISBN 1-85538-118-4.
4.^ "Lovebirds and Love Darts: The Wild World of Mating". news.national-geographic.com. National Geographic Society. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/02/0212_040213_lovebirds_2.html. Retrieved 2010-02-21.
[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Gastropoda

Predatory snails on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site.
Land Snail Ecology
Snailworlds-Timelaps
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snail"
Categories: Gastropods | Pet molluscs



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Weird and wonderful ways to naturally control garden snails and slugs

Excellent ideas on how to control an over population of garden snails. Important information to have as you really don't want to spend your time and money preparing a garden only to wake up and find it all eaten.


In the case of my Raised Garden Bed - No Dig Garden I knew I would have a problem with these little critters. There were small shrubs nearby and it had also been raining, I had seen the tell tale signs of snail trails heading for the new garden. Combine that with a few dozen seedlings and it was the chance for a feast.
There was no way I wanted to use any commercially prepared bait as I had the pets and local birds etc to consider. These natural organic gardening techniques have been around for many years.


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NATURAL AND SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS


Beer

Salt

Hair


Eggshells

Bird Netting

Porridge


Copper

Crushing

Coffee


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Learn more about THEIR LIFE CYCLE here

An amusing story called The Great Snail Hunt

An inspiring life lesson from these little critters


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Still have a problem? Ever considered getting a duck?





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** Have you ever tried one of these snail pest control ideas? If so, what did you think?

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Send along your comments and they will appear here on the site - share with other gardeners and your friends.
Garden Snails


One of the most common snail species in Australia is the introduced Garden Snail. Despite its pest status, it is quite a remarkable animal.

When was the last time you looked at a snail closely? Snails are one of those animals that we see quite often in our yards (well we used to when it rained!) but don’t tend to appreciate the sheer complexity of the way they work. The humble snail is quite an incredible little animal, one which operates very differently than we do!

Even with a drought upon us, most of us still have healthy populations of snails in our gardens. Unfortunately the local species which shares our appreciation for the plants we grow is an introduced snail; the Garden Snail Cantareus aspersus is from Europe. Nevertheless, this foreign pest is still a fascinating creature in it own right.

The first sign of movement from a snail is usually the emergence of the head followed by a tentative extending eye-stalk or ‘tentacle’. Land snails have two pairs of tentacles, with eyes on the tips of the longest pair. The ability to turn your eyes inside out is not something I aspire to, but it is an amazing adaptation to protect their eyes and is a great space saver. The eye-stalks actually invert when they are withdrawn – just like a rubber glove being pulled back inside itself. Even as their bodies are still emerging, snails can start to move off, although as we know, this is not exactly with a jolt of acceleration. The top speed of a Garden Snail is around 0.048 km/h. Still, their unique method of sliding along on a single ‘foot’ while releasing a bed of low-friction mucus is perfect for their way of life, but does require a humid or wet environment to avoid drying out. Cruising this way has its advantages; you can travel anywhere; upside down, and also over sharp objects. A snail can slide over the edge of a razor blade without cutting itself!

Sharp teeth? Surely not, however it’s exactly what they have – and hundreds of them. Snail teeth or radula as they are called, are tiny and attached to their ribbon-like tongues. Snails’ teeth are shaped to suit their particular diet.

Although we know all too well the diet of the Garden Snail, Australia has many native snails, which in the case of many other native animals much prefer to stay in their natural habitats. Our biggest species occur in Queensland, some with shells up to 70mm across. In Victoria there are two species of carnivorous snails that chase down worms, slugs and other snails in a slow motion battle to the death.

Snails are hermaphrodites; they are equipped as both a male and female. It still takes two to tango, but the odds are a lot better of finding a mate! After mating small clear or white eggs are laid in a moist position. Baby snails have very delicate shells, often a different shape than the parents; however this changes as they grow.


A Garden Snail has eyes on the tips of its largest pair of tentacles.


A snail's muscular foot is extremely flexible.


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DescriptionTop : Science: Agriculture: Animals : Snails (14)
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See also:
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Shopping: Food: Specialty and Gourmet: Escargot (0)
This category in other languages:French (5) German (9) Eating Garden Snails - Explains the preparation and cooking of garden snails for food and provides information on breeding and fattening them in the UK.
Escargot Passion - Experimental snail breeder. Information on snail farming (heliciculture) and cooking; genetic improvement to a breeding strain: the 'Blond des Flandres'; discussion forum, and links to commercial snail farms.
Escargots Funcia - Commercial organisation in Brazil specialising in snail production. Courses, books and videos on snail farming are offered along with additional snippets about snails in medicine, architecture, on stamps etc.
Farming Edible Snails: Lessons from Italy - Commissioned by the Australian Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, this report by Sonya Begg includes detailed information on most aspects of large scale outdoor cultivation of snails in Italy. [PDF]
First Co-Operative of Snail Breeders - Organisation of approximately 100 farms in the territory of Serbia and Montenegro. Arranges advice,lectures, farm visits and supply of snail breeding equipment.
Free-range Snail Farming in Australia - Report by Sonya Begg for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation covering this subject in detail. [PDF]
Helix - Snail Culture - Description and photographs of a Portuguese snail production facility that exports its entire output to France.
Istituto Elicicoltura - Italian based institute offering technical assistance to snail farmers. Includes information on species, breeding structures, production, and snails as they relate to science.
Raising Snails (from AFSIC) - Heliciculture guide covering various aspects of raising edible terrestrial snails, including common species, soil conditions, feeding, harvesting, import regulations, and an extensive bibliography. From The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center at the US National Agricultural Library.
Snail Farming In Australia - Summary of working with snails in Australian conditions. The information is written by Sonya Begg, an internationally active promoter of snail farming. Contains excerpts from her book and recipes for cooking snails.
Snail Farming and Management - Information on an e-book which covers rearing and breeding snails and all aspects of their production.
South West Snail Supply - Pictures of a snail growing operation (no longer in business) and the story of the trials and tribulations of a novice snail-rancher.
South West Snails - UK Snail farmer describes how they raise and sell English escargot. Live, in-shell, de-shelled snail meat and speciality butters available
The Trail of the Snail - Contains scientific as well as more whimsical information about snails, and includes many photographs.
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Mary Gold, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, NAL/ARS, and Karl Schneider, Reference and User Services Branch, NAL/ARS, assisted with database searching. María de Oro, sistemas alternativos de agricultura Centro de Información, NAL / ARS, y Karl Schneider, Referencia y Servicios al Usuario Branch, NAL / ARS, con la asistencia de base de datos de búsqueda. Ray Stevens, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, reviewed this publication. Ray Stevens, sistemas alternativos de agricultura Centro de Información, revisaron esta publicación. The authors appreciate their valuable input and assistance. Los autores agradecen su valiosa contribución y ayuda.
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Contents Contenido
Introduction Introducción

Edible Species Especies comestibles

Mating and Egg Laying El apareamiento y puesta de huevos

Growth Crecimiento

Farming Snails La agricultura Caracoles

Farming Snails Introduction La agricultura Caracoles Introducción

Pens and Enclosures Bolígrafos y Cajas

Cannibalism by Hatchlings El canibalismo de las crías

Gathering Snails Recopilación de los caracoles

Feeding Alimentación

Diseases and Pests Enfermedades y plagas

Population Density Densidad de Población
Shipping Envío

Turning Snails into Escargot En cuanto a los caracoles Escargot

Restrictions and Regulations Restricciones y Regulaciones

US Imports and Exports EE.UU. Las importaciones y exportaciones
Contacts Contactos

References Referencias
Electronic Electrónica

Automated bibliographic and Internet searches Automatizados y de Internet búsquedas bibliográficas

Bibliography Bibliografía

National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record Biblioteca Nacional de Agricultura de catalogación Registro
NAL Document Delivery Services NAL Prestación de Servicios de documentos

Non-Discrimination Disclaimer No Discriminación Responsabilidad

Commercial Endorsement Disclaimer Responsabilidad respaldo comercial

Metric Conversion Charts Tablas de conversión métrica


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National Agricultural Library Cataloging Record Biblioteca Nacional de Agricultura de catalogación Registro
Thompson, Rebecca Thompson, Rebecca
Raising snails. El aumento de los caracoles.
(Special reference briefs ; 96-05) (Escritos Especial referencia; 96-05)
1. 1. Snail farming. la cría de caracoles. 2. 2. Edible snails. caracoles comestibles. 3. 3. Snails Computer network resources. Los caracoles recursos de la red informática. 4. 4. Snail farming Bibliography. Caracol agricultura Bibliografía. I. Cheney, Sheldon. Cheney, I., Sheldon.
II. II. Title. Título.
aS21.D27S64 no.96-05 aS21.D27S64 no.96-05

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Raising Snails El aumento de los caracoles
Introduction Introducción
Heliciculture is the process of farming or raising snails. Helicicultura es el proceso de la agricultura o elevar los caracoles. Snail farming on a large-scale basis requires a considerable investment in time, equipment, and resources. Prospective snail farmers should carefully consider these factors, especially if their goal is to supply large quantities to commercial businesses. la cría de caracoles en una escala base grande requiere una inversión considerable en tiempo, equipo y recursos. caracol agricultores potenciales deben considerar cuidadosamente estos factores, sobre todo si su objetivo es suministrar grandes cantidades a las empresas comerciales. Anyone who wishes to raise snails should expect to experiment until he finds what works best in his specific situation. Cualquier persona que desee criar caracoles deben esperar a experimentar hasta encontrar lo que funciona mejor en su situación específica. Expect a few problems. Espere unos cuantos problemas.

Roasted snail shells have been found in archaeological excavations, an indication that snails have been eaten since prehistoric times. conchas de caracoles asados se han encontrado en excavaciones arqueológicas, una indicación de que los caracoles se han comido desde tiempos prehistóricos. In ancient Rome, snails were fattened up in "cochlear" gardens before they were eaten. "A Virginia Farmer" (1) described keeping snails in a cool, moist and shady environment, supplying artificial dew if necessary, containing them on an "island" surrounded by water to prevent escape, supplying vegetation as feed, and fattening them on corn meal. Pliny described the snail garden of Fulvius Hirpinus 2,000 years ago as having separate sections for different species of snails. En la antigua Roma, los caracoles fueron engordados en "coclear" jardines antes de ser comido. "un granjero de Virginia" (1) describe los caracoles de mantenimiento en un húmedo y frío y el medio ambiente sombrío, el suministro de rocío artificial si es necesario, que los contienen en una isla " "rodeada de agua para impedir la fuga, el suministro de la vegetación como alimento, y engorde de la harina de maíz. Plinio describe el jardín del caracol de Fulvio Hirpinus años 2000 por tener secciones separadas para las diferentes especies de caracoles. Hirpinus allegedly fed his snails on meal and wine. (2) [But note, stale beer placed in a shallow dish is a way of killing them. Hirpinus supuestamente alimentaba a sus caracoles en la comida y el vino. (2) [Pero tenga en cuenta, cerveza rancia coloca en un plato poco profundo es una forma de matarlos. Snails are attracted to the yeast in beer and will crawl into the dish and drown.] The Romans selected the best snails for breeding. Los caracoles son atraídos por la levadura en la cerveza y se arrastran en el plato y se ahogan.] Los romanos seleccionado las mejores para la cría de caracoles. "Wall fish" were often eaten in Britain, but were never as popular as on the continent. "Muro de los peces" se comían a menudo en Gran Bretaña, pero nunca fueron tan populares como en el continente. There, people often ate snails during Lent, and in a few places, they consumed large quantities of snails at Mardi Gras or Carnival, as a foretaste of Lent. Allí, la gente suele comer caracoles durante la Cuaresma, y en algunos lugares, que consumían grandes cantidades de caracoles en el Mardi Gras o Carnaval, como un anticipo de la Cuaresma.


According to some sources, the French imported brown garden snails to California in the 1850's, raising them as the delicacy escargot. Según algunas fuentes, los franceses marrón jardín caracoles importados a California en la década de 1850, el aumento como la delicadeza escargot. Other sources claim that Italian immigrants were the first to bring the snail to the US. Otras fuentes afirman que los inmigrantes italianos fueron los primeros en poner el caracol a los EE.UU..


US imports of snails were worth more than $4.5 million in 1995 and came from 24 countries. las importaciones de EE.UU. de caracoles fueron por valor de más de $ 4.5 millones en 1995 y procedían de 24 países. This includes preserved or prepared snails and snails that are live, fresh, chilled, or frozen. Esto incluye conservas o preparados de caracoles y caracoles que están vivos, frescos, refrigerados o congelados. Major exporters to the US are France, Indonesia, Greece and China. Los principales exportadores a los EE.UU. son Francia, Indonesia, Grecia y China. The US exported live, fresh, chilled, or frozen snails worth $55,000 to 13 countries; most were shipped to Japan, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. [See US Imports and Exports . Los EE.UU. exportados, frescos, refrigerados o congelados caracoles vivos por valor de $ 55.000 a 13 países, la mayoría fueron enviados a Japón, los Países Bajos y el Reino Unido Ver. [ EE.UU. Las importaciones y exportaciones . Source: US Department of Commerce. Fuente: EE.UU. El Departamento de Comercio. Individual statistics are not available for US exports of prepared or processed snails. estadísticas individuales no están disponibles para las exportaciones de EE.UU. de caracoles preparados o procesados.

This publication provides a general overview of farming edible terrestrial snails. Esta publicación ofrece un panorama general de la cría de caracoles comestibles terrestres. The authors have used many sources believed to be reliable. Los autores han utilizado numerosas fuentes que consideramos fiables. Information supplied by some farmers or researchers may conflict with information supplied by others. Información proporcionada por algunos agricultores o los investigadores pueden entrar en conflicto con la información suministrada por otros. The information applies to several different species of snails, and not all of it necessarily applies to one particular species. La información se aplica a varias especies diferentes de caracoles, y no todos necesariamente se aplica a una especie en particular.


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Edible Species Especies comestibles
Edible land snails range in size from about one millimeter long to the giant African snails, which occasionally grow up to 312mm (1 foot) in length. caracoles terrestres comestibles varían en tamaño de aproximadamente un milímetro de largo a los caracoles gigantes africanos, que a veces crecen hasta 312 mm (1 pie) de longitud. "Escargot" most commonly refers to either Helix aspersa or to Helix pomatia , although other varieties of snails are eaten. Achatina fulica , a giant African snail, is sliced and canned and passed off on some consumers as escargot. "Escargot" más comúnmente se refiere a cualquiera de Helix aspersa o Helix pomatia, aunque otras variedades de caracoles se comen. Achatina fulica, un caracol gigante africano, es cortado en lonchas y en conserva y pasar en algunos consumidores como escargot. Terms such as "garden snail" or "common brown garden snail" are rather meaningless since they refer to so many types of snails, but they sometimes mean H. Términos tales como "caracol" o "marrón caracol común de jardín" son más bien de sentido ya que se refieren a tantos tipos de caracoles, pero a veces significa H. aspersa . aspersa.


Helix aspersa Muller is also known as the French "petit gris," "small grey snail," the "escargot chagrine," or "La Zigrinata." Helix aspersa Muller es también conocido como el francés "petit gris", "caracol gris pequeño", el "chagrine escargot", o "La Zigrinata". The shell of a mature adult has four to five whorls and measures 30 to 45mm across. La cáscara de un adulto maduro tiene cuatro hasta cinco espirales y las medidas de 30 a 45 mm de diámetro. It is native to the shores of the Mediterranean and up the coast of Spain and France. Es nativa de las costas del Mediterráneo y la costa de España y Francia. It is found on many British Isles, where the Romans introduced it in the first century AD (Some references say it dates to the Early Bronze Age.) In the early 1800's the French brought it into California where it has become a serious pest. Se encuentra en muchas islas británicas, donde los romanos lo introdujeron en el siglo I dC (algunas referencias dicen que data de la Edad del Bronce temprana.) A principios de 1800 los franceses lo llevó a California donde se ha convertido en una plaga seria. These snails are now common throughout the US It was introduced into several Eastern and Gulf states even before 1850 and, later introduced into other countries such as South Africa, New Zealand, Mexico, and Argentina. H. Estos caracoles son ahora comunes en todos los EE.UU. Fue introducido en varios estados del este y del Golfo, incluso antes de 1850 y, posteriormente introducidas en otros países como Sudáfrica, Nueva Zelanda, México y Argentina. H. aspersa has a life span of 2 to 5 years. aspersa tiene una vida útil de 2 a 5 años. This species is more adaptable to different climates and conditions than many snails, and is found in woods, fields, sand dunes, and gardens. Esta especie es más adaptable a diferentes climas y condiciones que muchos caracoles, y se encuentra en bosques, campos, dunas de arena, y los jardines. This adaptability not only increases H. Esta capacidad de adaptación no sólo aumenta la H. aspersa's range, but it also makes farming H. aspersa de la gama, pero también hace que la agricultura H. aspersa easier and less risky. aspersa más fácil y menos arriesgada.


Helix pomatia Linne measures about 45mm across the shell. Helix pomatia Linne mide unos 45 mm a través de la cáscara. It also is called the "Roman snail," "apple snail," "lunar," "La Vignaiola," the German "Weinbergschnecke," the French "escargot de Bourgogne" or "Burgundy snail," or "gros blanc." También se llama el "caracol romano", "caracol de la manzana", "lunar", "La Vignaiola," el alemán "Weinbergschnecke," el francés "escargot de Bourgogne" o "caracol de Borgoña", o "gros blanc". Native over a large part of Europe, it lives in wooded mountains and valleys up to 2,000 meters (6,000 feet) altitude and in vineyards and gardens. Nativas en una gran parte de Europa, vive en las montañas boscosas y valles hasta 2.000 metros (6.000 pies) de altitud y en los viñedos y jardines. The Romans may have introduced it into Britain. Los romanos pueden haberlo introducido en Gran Bretaña. Immigrants introduced it into the US in Michigan and Wisconsin. Los inmigrantes se introdujo en los EE.UU. en Michigan y Wisconsin. Many prefer H. Muchos prefieren H. pomatia to H. pomatia a H. aspersa for its flavor and its larger size, as the "escargot par excellence." aspersa por su sabor y su tamaño más grande, como la "excelencia escargot".


Otala lactea or Helix lactea is sometimes called the "vineyard snail," "milk snail," or "Spanish snail." Otala lactea o lactea Helix es a veces llamado el "caracol de viña", "caracol de la leche", o "caracol español". The shell is white with reddish brown spiral bands and measures about 26 to 35mm in diameter. La cáscara es de color blanco rojizo con bandas espirales de color marrón y mide alrededor de 26 a 35 mm de diámetro. Many think it tastes better than H. Muchos piensan que tiene mejor sabor que H. aspersa . aspersa.


Iberus alonensis --the Spanish "cabretes" or "xona fina"--measures about 30mm across the shell. Iberus alonensis - los españoles "cabretes" o "Xona fina" - mide unos 30 mm a través de la cáscara.


Cepaea nemoralis -- Helix nemoralis , the "wood snail," or the Spanish "vaqueta,"-- measures about 25mm across the shell. Cepaea nemoralis - nemoralis Helix, el "caracol de madera", o el español "vaqueta" - mide alrededor de 25 mm a través de la cáscara. It inhabits Central Europe and was introduced into and inhabits many US states, from Massachusetts to California and from Tennessee to Canada. Habita en Europa central y fue introducido a la entrada ya habita en muchos estados de EE.UU., desde Massachusetts a California y de Texas a Canadá. Its habitat ranges widely from woods to dunes. Su hábitat varía mucho de un bosque a las dunas. It mainly eats dead plant material, but it likes nettles and buttercups and will eat dead worms and dead snails. Se come sobre todo material vegetal muerto, pero le gusta ortigas y botones de oro y va a comer los gusanos muertos y los caracoles muertos.


Cepaea hortensis , or Helix hortensis , the "garden snail," measures about 20mm across the shell and has distinct dark stripes. Cepaea hortensis, o hortensis Helix, el "caracol", mide unos 20 mm a través de la cáscara y tiene distintas franjas oscuras. It is native to central and northern Europe. Introduced into Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire in colonial times, it never became established in these states. Es nativa de Europa central y septentrional. Introducido en Maine, Massachusetts y New Hampshire en la época colonial, nunca se estableció en estos estados. Its habitat varies like C. Su hábitat varía como C. nemoralis , but C. hortensis is found in colder and wetter places than nemoralis. nemoralis, pero hortensis C. se encuentra en lugares húmedos y fríos que nemoralis. Their smaller size and some people's opinion that snails with striped shells do not taste as good make hortensis and nemoralis less popular. Su tamaño más pequeño y la gente la opinión de algunos que los caracoles con conchas de rayas no saben tan bien que hortensis y nemoralis menos populares.


Otala punctata or Archelix punctata , called "vaqueta" in some parts of Spain, measures about 35mm across the shell. Otala punctata punctata o Archelix, llamado "vaqueta" en algunas partes de España, mide unos 35 mm a través de la cáscara.


Otala vermiculata --also called Eobania v. or Helix v. , the "vinyala," "mongeta," or "xona"--measures about 25mm. vermiculata Otala - también llamado Eobania v. o Helix contra, el "vinyala", "mongeta", o "Xona" - mide unos 25 mm. It is found in Mediterranean countries and was introduced into Louisiana and Texas. Se encuentra en los países mediterráneos y fue introducido en Louisiana y Texas.


Helix lucorum , sometimes called "escargo turc," measures about 45mm across the shell. lucorum Helix, a veces llamado "escargo turc", mide unos 45 mm a través de la cáscara. It is found in central Italy and from Yugoslavia through the Crimea to Turkey and around the Black Sea. Se encuentra en el centro de Italia y de Yugoslavia a través de la guerra de Crimea a Turquía y en todo el Mar Negro.


Helix adanensis comes from around Turkey. adanensis hélice viene de todas partes de Turquía.


Helix aperta measures about 25mm. Hélice medidas aperta unos 25mm. Its meat is highly prized. Su carne es muy apreciada. It is native to France, Italy, and Mediterranean countries and has become established in California and Louisiana. Es nativo de Francia, Italia y los países del Mediterráneo y se ha establecido en California y Louisiana. Sometimes known as the "burrowing snail," it is found above ground only during rainy weather. A veces conocido como el "caracol llanero", que se encuentra por encima del suelo sólo durante el tiempo lluvioso. In hot, dry weather, it burrows three to six inches into the ground and becomes dormant until rain softens the soil. En seco y hace calor, se entierra tres a seis pulgadas en el suelo y se duerme hasta que la lluvia ablanda la tierra.


Theba pisana --also called the "banded snail"or the "cargol avellanenc"--measures about 20mm and lives on dry, exposed sites, usually near the sea. Theba pisana - también llamado el "caracol bandas" o el "avellanenc cargol" - mide unos 20 mm y vive en, expuestos los sitios secos, por lo general cerca de la costa. Native to Sicily, it has been spread to several European countries, including England. Originaria de Sicilia, se ha extendido a varios países europeos, incluyendo Inglaterra. This snail is a serious garden pest and is the "white snail" that California once eradicated by using flamethrowers to burn off whole areas. Este caracol es una plaga seria jardín y es el "caracol blanco" de California, una vez erradicados utilizando lanzallamas para quemar zonas enteras. In large numbers, up to 3,000 snails per tree, it can ravage a garden in 24 hours and a citrus or other crop in a couple of nights. En grandes cantidades, hasta 3.000 caracoles por árbol, que puede devastar un jardín en 24 horas y otros cultivos de cítricos en un par de noches.


Sphincterochila candidisima or Leucochroa candidisima , the "cargol mongeta," or "cargol jueu" measures about 20mm. Sphincterochila candidisima o Leucochroa candidisima, la "mongeta cargol", o "Jueu cargol" mide unos 20 mm.


Achatina fulica , one of several giant African snails, grows up to 326mm (one foot) long. Achatina fulica, uno de varios caracoles africanos gigantes, crece hasta los 326mm (un pie) de largo. Its origin is South of the Sahara in East Africa. Su origen se encuentra al Sur del Sahara en África Oriental. This snail was purposely introduced into India in 1847. Este caracol se introdujo a propósito en la India en 1847. There was an unsuccessful attempt to establish it in Japan in 1925. Hubo un intento fallido para establecer en Japón en 1925. It has been purposely and accidentally transported to other Pacific locations and was inadvertently released in California after World War II, in Hawaii, and later in North Miami Florida in the 1970's. Ha sido a propósito y accidentalmente transportados a otros lugares del Pacífico y fue puesto en libertad sin darse cuenta en California después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en Hawai, y más tarde en el norte de Miami, Florida en la década de 1970. In many places, it is a serious agricultural pest that causes considerable crop damage. En muchos lugares, es una grave plaga para la agricultura que causa considerables daños a los cultivos. Also, due to its large size, its slime and fecal material create a nuisance as does the odor that occurs when something like poison bait causes large numbers to die. Además, debido a su gran tamaño, su limo y materia fecal crear una molestia al igual que el olor que se produce cuando algo como cebo del veneno causa un gran número de morir. The US has made considerable effort to eradicate Achatina. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) bans the importation of, and it is illegal to possess, live giant African snails. Los EE.UU. ha hecho un considerable esfuerzo para erradicar la Achatina. El Departamento de Agricultura de EE.UU. (USDA) prohíbe la importación de, y es ilegal poseer, viven los caracoles gigantes africanos.

"There is no such thing as the giant African or West African snail since there are many genera containing numerous species. . . . For instance, the giant snail in Ghana is taken to mean Achatina Achatina (Linne), but in Nigeria this might refer to Arachachatina Marginata (Swainson), and in East Africa to Achatina fulica Bodich. There are, therefore, several giant land snails in Africa, and not just one species." (3) "No hay tal cosa como los países de África o del África Occidental caracol gigante, ya que hay muchos géneros que contiene numerosas especies.... Por ejemplo, el caracol gigante en Ghana se entiende Achatina Achatina (Linne), pero en Nigeria esta referencia podría a Arachachatina Marginata (Swainson), y en el este de África para Achatina fulica Bodich. Hay, por lo tanto, varios caracoles de tierra gigante en África, y no sólo una especie. " (3)
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Mating and Egg Laying El apareamiento y puesta de huevos
Snails are hermaphrodites. Los caracoles son hermafroditas. Although they have both male and female reproductive organs, they must mate with another snail of the same species before they lay eggs. Some snails may act as males one season and as females the next. A pesar de que tienen órganos reproductores femeninos y masculinos, tienen que aparearse con otro caracol de la misma especie antes de que pongan huevos. Algunos caracoles pueden actuar como los hombres de una temporada y como las mujeres la siguiente. Other snails play both roles at once and fertilize each other simultaneously. Otros caracoles jugar ambos roles a la vez y fecundarse mutuamente al mismo tiempo. When the snail is large enough and mature enough, which may take several years, mating occurs in the late spring or early summer after several hours of courtship. Cuando el caracol es suficiente y lo suficientemente maduro grande, que puede durar varios años, el apareamiento se produce a finales de primavera o principios de verano después de varias horas de cortejo. Sometimes there is a second mating in summer. A veces hay un segundo empadre en verano. (In tropical climates, mating may occur several times a year. In some climates, snails mate around October and may mate a second time 2 weeks later.) After mating, the snail can store sperm received for up to a year, but it usually lays eggs within a few weeks. (En los climas tropicales, el apareamiento puede ocurrir varias veces al año. En algunos climas, caracoles compañero de alrededor de octubre y puede compañero por segunda vez dos semanas más tarde.) Después del apareamiento, el caracol puede almacenar el esperma recibido hasta por un año, pero por lo general pone los huevos dentro de un par de semanas. Snails are sometimes uninterested in mating with another snail of the same species that originated from a considerable distance away. Los caracoles son a veces interés en acoplarse con otro caracol de la misma especie que se originó a partir de una distancia considerable. For example, a H. Por ejemplo, un H. aspersa from southern France may reject a H. aspersa desde el sur de Francia puede rechazar una H. aspersa from northern France. aspersa desde el norte de Francia.

Snails need soil at least 2 inches deep in which to lay their eggs. Los caracoles necesitan del suelo por lo menos 2 pulgadas de profundidad en la que depositan sus huevos. For H. Para H. pomatia , the soil should be at least 3 inches deep. pomatia, el suelo debe ser de al menos 3 pulgadas de profundidad. Keep out pests such as ants, earwigs, millipedes, etc. Mantenga las plagas como las hormigas, tijeretas, milpiés, etc Dry soil is not suitable for the preparation of a nest, nor is soil that is too heavy. In clay soil that becomes hard, reproduction rates may decrease because the snails are unable to bury their eggs and the hatchlings have difficulty emerging from the nest. Hatchability of eggs depends on soil temperature, soil humidity, soil composition, etc. Soil consisting of 20% to 40% organic material is good. del suelo seco no es adecuado para la preparación de un nido, ni el suelo que es demasiado pesado. En el suelo de arcilla que se endurece, las tasas de reproducción puede disminuir debido a los caracoles no son capaces de enterrar sus huevos y las crías tienen dificultades para salir de su nido. eclosión de los huevos depende de la temperatura del suelo, la humedad del suelo, la composición del suelo, etc suelo que consta de 20% a 40% de material orgánico es bueno. Keep the soil 65 F to 80 F, best around 70. Mantenga el suelo 65 F a 80 F, en el mejor 70. Maintain soil moisture of 80%. Mantener la humedad del suelo del 80%. One researcher removes eggs immediately after they are deposited, counts them, then keeps them on moist cotton until the eggs hatch and the young start to eat. Un investigador elimina los huevos inmediatamente después de ser depositados, cuenta con ellos, entonces los mantiene en el algodón húmedo hasta la eclosión de los huevos y el inicio de los jóvenes a comer. Snails lose substantial weight by laying eggs. Los caracoles bajar de peso sustancial por medio de huevos. Some do not recover. Algunos no se recuperan. About one-third of the snails will die after the breeding season. Alrededor de un tercio de los caracoles se mueren después de la temporada de reproducción.


H. pomatia eggs measure about 3mm in diameter and have a calcareous shell and a high yolk content. H. H. pomatia huevos miden aproximadamente 3 mm de diámetro y tienen una cubierta calcárea y un alto contenido de yema. H. pomatia lays the eggs in July or August, 2 to 8 weeks after mating, in holes dug out in the ground. pomatia pone los huevos en julio o agosto de 2 a 8 semanas después del apareamiento, en agujeros excavados en el suelo. (Data varies widely on how long after mating snails lay eggs.) The snail puts its head into the hole or may crawl in until only the top of the shell is visible; then it deposits eggs from the genital opening just behind the head. (Datos varía mucho en cuánto tiempo después de caracoles de apareamiento ponen huevos.) El caracol pone su cabeza en el agujero o pueden rastrear hasta que sólo en la parte superior de la cáscara es visible, a continuación, deposita los huevos de la abertura genital justo detrás de la cabeza. It takes the snail 1 to 2 days to lay 30 to 50 eggs. Toma el caracol 1 a 2 días para poner 30 a 50 huevos. Occasionally, the snail will lay about a dozen more a few weeks later. En ocasiones, el caracol se ponen alrededor de una docena más de un par de semanas más tarde. The snail covers the hole with a mixture of the slime it excretes and dirt. El caracol cubre el agujero con una mezcla de barro y la suciedad se excreta. This slime, which the snail excretes to help it crawl and to help preserve the moisture in its soft body, is glycoprotein similar to eggwhite. Este lodo, que el caracol excreta para ayudarle a rastrear y ayudar a conservar la humedad en su cuerpo blando, es similar a la glicoproteína de clara de huevo.


Fully-developed baby H. Completamente desarrollado bebé H. pomatia snails hatch about 3 to 4 weeks after the eggs are laid, depending on temperature and humidity. caracoles pomatia escotilla cerca de 3 a 4 semanas después de la hembra pone los huevos, dependiendo de la temperatura y la humedad. Birds, insects, mice, toads and other predators take a heavy toll on the young snails. Aves, insectos, ratones, sapos y otros depredadores tomar una pesada carga sobre los caracoles pequeños. The snails eat and grow until the weather turns cold. Los caracoles comen y crecen hasta que el clima se vuelve frío. They then dig a deep hole, sometimes as deep as 1 foot, and seal themselves inside their shell and hibernate for the winter. A continuación, cavar un agujero profundo, a veces tan profundo como un pie, y el sello de sí mismos dentro de su cáscara y de hibernación durante el invierno. This is a response to both decreasing temperature and shorter hours of daylight. Esta es una respuesta tanto a disminución de la temperatura y menos horas de luz del día. When the ground warms up in spring, the snail emerges and goes on a binge of replacing lost moisture and eating. Cuando la tierra se calienta en la primavera, el caracol se desprende y se va en una borrachera de reemplazar la humedad perdida y comer.


H. aspersa eggs are white, spherical, about 3mm in diameter and are laid 5 days to 3 weeks after mating. H. aspersa los huevos son de color blanco, esférico, de 3 mm de diámetro y están dispuestos de 5 días a 3 semanas después del apareamiento. (Data varies widely due to differences in climate and regional variations in the snails' habitats.) H. (Datos varía ampliamente debido a las diferencias en el clima y las variaciones regionales en los caracoles los hábitats.) H. aspersa lays an average of 85 eggs in a nest that is 1- to 1 1/2-inches deep. aspersa pone un promedio de 85 huevos en un nido que es de 1 - a 1 1/2-inches profunda. Data varies from 30 to over 120 eggs, but high figures may be from when more than one snail lays eggs in the same nest. Datos varía de 30 a más de 120 huevos, pero las cifras altas pueden ser desde el momento en más de un caracol pone huevos en el mismo nido.


In warm, damp climates, H. En húmedo y clima cálido, H. aspersa may lay eggs as often as once a month from February through October, depending on the weather and region. aspersa pueden poner huevos con la frecuencia que una vez al mes desde febrero hasta octubre, dependiendo del clima y de la región. Mating and egg-laying begin when there are at least 8 hours of daylight and continue until days begin to get shorter. Apareamiento y la puesta de huevos comienzan cuando hay al menos 8 horas de luz del día y continuar hasta los días comienzan a acortarse. In the United States, longer hours of sunlight that occur when temperatures are still too cold will affect this schedule, but increasing hours of daylight still stimulate egg laying. En los Estados Unidos, más horas de luz solar que se producen cuando las temperaturas son todavía demasiado frío afecta a este programa, pero las horas cada vez mayor de la luz del día todavía estimular la puesta de huevos. If warm enough, the eggs hatch in about 2 weeks, or in 4 weeks if cooler. Si es lo suficientemente caliente, los huevos eclosionan en unos 2 semanas, o en 4 semanas si refrigerador. It takes the baby snails several more days to break out of the sealed nest and climb to the surface. Se necesita el bebé caracoles más de varios días para salir del nido sellado y subir a la superficie. In a climate similar to southern California's, H. En un clima similar al del sur de California, H. aspersa matures in about 2 years. aspersa madura en aproximadamente 2 años. In central Italy, H. En el centro de Italia, H. aspersa hatches and emerges from the soil almost exclusively in the autumn. aspersa escotillas y emerge de la tierra casi exclusivamente en el otoño. If well fed and not overcrowded, those snails that hatch at the start of the season will reach adult size and form a lip at the edge of their shell by the following June. Si bien alimentados y no hacinamiento, los caracoles que salen al inicio de la temporada alcanzará el tamaño adulto y forma un labio en el borde de su concha por el siguiente mes de junio. If you manipulate the environment to get more early hatchlings, the size and number of snails that mature the following year will increase. In South Africa, some H. Si manipular el entorno para obtener crías más temprano, el tamaño y el número de caracoles que vencen el año siguiente irá en aumento. En el sur de África, algunos H. aspersa mature in 10 months, and under ideal conditions in a laboratory, some have matured in 6 to 8 months. aspersa maduran en 10 meses, y bajo condiciones ideales en un laboratorio, algunos han madurado en 6 a 8 meses. Most of H. La mayor parte de H. aspersa's reproductive activity takes place in the second year of its life. la actividad reproductiva de aspersa se lleva a cabo en el segundo año de su vida.


By contrast, one giant African snail, Achatina fulica , lays 100 to 400 elliptical eggs that each measure about 5mm long. Por el contrario, un caracol gigante africano, Achatina fulica, establece 100 a 400 huevos cada una elíptica que miden aproximadamente 5 mm de largo. Each snail may lay several batches of eggs each year, usually in the wet season. Cada tortuga puede poner varios lotes de huevos cada año, generalmente en la época de lluvias. They may lay eggs in holes in the ground like H. pomatia , or lay eggs on the surface of a rocky soil, in organic matter, or at the base of plants. Ellos pueden poner sus huevos en agujeros en el suelo como pomatia H., o ponen sus huevos en la superficie de un suelo rocoso, en materia orgánica, o en la base de las plantas. In 10 to 30 days, the eggs hatch releasing snails about 4mm long. En 10 a 30 días, los huevos eclosionan liberando caracoles unos 4 mm de largo. These snails grow up to 10mm per month. Estos caracoles crecer hasta 10 mm por mes. After 6 months, the Achatina fulica is about 35mm long and may already be sexually mature. Después de 6 meses, el Achatina fulica es de unos 35 mm de largo y pueden ser ya la madurez sexual. Sexual maturity takes 6 to 16 months, depending on weather and the availability of calcium. La madurez sexual es de 6 a 16 meses, dependiendo del clima y la disponibilidad de calcio. This snail lives 5 or 6 years, sometimes as many as 9 years. Este caracol vive 5 o 6 años, a veces hasta 9 años.


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Growth Crecimiento
Within the same snail population and under the same conditions, some snails will grow faster than others. Dentro de la población de caracol misma y en las mismas condiciones, algunos caracoles crecerá más rápido que otros. Some will take twice as long to mature. Algunos tendrán el doble de tiempo para madurar. This may help the species survive bad weather, etc., in the wild. Esto puede ayudar a la especie sobrevivir el mal tiempo, etc, en la naturaleza. However, a snail farmer should obviously select and keep the largest and fastest maturing snails for breeding stock. Sin embargo, un agricultor de caracol, obviamente, debe seleccionar y mantener la maduración más rápida y caracoles más grande para la ganadería. Sell the smaller snails. Venta de los caracoles más pequeños. By selecting only the largest, the average size of the snail may increase significantly in only a couple of generations. Al seleccionar sólo los más grandes, el tamaño promedio del caracol puede aumentar considerablemente en sólo un par de generaciones. Most of the differences in growth are probably due to environmental factors including stocking density. La mayoría de las diferencias en el crecimiento se deben probablemente a factores ambientales, incluyendo la densidad de población. However, to whatever extent these differences are genetic, you might as well breed large, fast-growing snails instead of small, slower-growing ones. Sin embargo, a lo que punto estas diferencias son genéticas, puede ser que también la raza, de rápido crecimiento en lugar de caracoles grandes, de crecimiento lento los pequeños.

Several factors can greatly influence the growth of snails including: population density; stress [snails are sensitive to noise, light, vibration, unsanitary conditions, irregular feedings, being touched, etc.]; feed; temperature and moisture; and the breeding technology used. Hay varios factores que pueden influir mucho en el crecimiento de los caracoles como: densidad de población, el estrés [caracoles son sensibles al ruido, la luz, las vibraciones, condiciones antihigiénicas, alimentación irregular, ser tocado, etc], alimentación, temperatura y humedad, y la tecnología de reproducción utilizados .


H. aspersa requires at least 3% to 4% calcium in the soil (or another source of calcium) for good growth. H. aspersa requiere al menos un 3% a 4% de calcio en el suelo (u otra fuente de calcio) para un buen crecimiento. Most snails need more calcium in the soil than H. La mayoría de los caracoles necesitan más calcio en el suelo que H. aspersa . Low calcium intake will slow the growth rate and cause the shell to be thinner. Calcium may be set out in a feeding dish or trough so the snails can eat it at will. aspersa. Baja ingesta de calcio se desacelerará la tasa de crecimiento y hacer que la shell para ser más delgada. calcio puede ser establecido en una fuente de alimentación oa través de lo que el caracol puede comer a voluntad. Food is only one calcium source. La comida es sólo una fuente de calcio. Snails may eat paint or attack walls of buildings seeking calcium, and they also will eat dirt. Los caracoles pueden comer o ataque pintar las paredes de los edificios de la búsqueda de calcio, y también va a comer tierra.


A newborn's shell size depends on the egg size since the shell develops from the egg's surface membrane. Un recién nacido tamaño de la concha depende del tamaño del huevo puesto que el depósito se desarrolla a partir de la superficie de la membrana del huevo. As the snail grows, the shell is added onto in increments. Eventually the shell will develop a flare or reinforcing lip at its opening. Como el caracol crece, la cáscara se agrega en incrementos. Eventualmente el shell desarrollar una erupción o el labio de refuerzo en su apertura. This shows that the snail is now mature; there will be no further shell growth. Esto demuestra que el caracol está madura; no habrá más crecimiento de la concha. Growth is measured by shell size, since a snail's body weight varies and fluctuates, even in 100% humidity. The growth rate varies considerably between individuals in each population group. Adult size, which is related to the growth rate, also varies, thus the fastest growers are usually the largest snails. El crecimiento se mide por el tamaño de la concha, ya que de tortuga de peso corporal una variable y fluctúa, incluso en el 100% de humedad. La tasa de crecimiento varía considerablemente entre los individuos en cada grupo de población. Tamaño adulto, que se relaciona con la tasa de crecimiento, también varía, por tanto, la más rápido los productores son generalmente los más grandes caracoles. Eggs from larger, healthier snails also tend to grow faster and thus larger. Los huevos de mayor tamaño, más saludable caracoles también tienden a crecer más rápido y por lo tanto más grande.


Dryness inhibits growth and even stops activity. Sequedad inhibe el crecimiento e incluso se detiene la actividad. When it becomes too hot and dry in summer, the snail becomes inactive, seals its shell and estivates (becomes dormant) until cooler, moister weather returns. Cuando se pone demasiado caliente y seco en verano, el caracol se vuelve inactiva, sella su concha y estivates (latente) hasta el más frío, el clima vuelve más húmedo. Some snails estivate in groups on tree trunks, posts, or walls. Algunos caracoles estivan en grupos en troncos de árboles, postes o paredes. They seal themselves to the surface thus sealing up the shell opening. Ellos se junta a la superficie sellando así la apertura de concha.


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Farming snails La agricultura caracoles
Farming Snails Introduction La agricultura Caracoles Introducción

Pens and Enclosures Bolígrafos y Cajas

Cannibalism by Hatchlings El canibalismo de las crías

Gathering Snails Recopilación de los caracoles

Feeding Alimentación

Diseases and Pests Enfermedades y plagas

Population Density Densidad de Población
Successful snail culture requires the correct equipment and supplies, including: snail pens or enclosures; devices for measuring humidity (hygrometer), temperature (thermometer), soil moisture, and light (in foot candles); a weight scale and an instrument to measure snail size; a kit for testing soil contents; and a magnifying glass to see the eggs. helicicultura éxito requiere que el equipo correcto y suministros, entre ellos: lápices caracol o cajas; dispositivos de medición de la humedad (higrómetros), temperatura (termómetro), la humedad del suelo y la luz (velas en los pies), una báscula y un instrumento para medir el caracol tamaño, un kit para probar el contenido del suelo, y una lupa para ver los huevos. You also may need equipment to control the climate (temperature and humidity), to regulate water (eg, a sprinkler system to keep the snails moist and a drainage system), to provide light and shade, and to kill or keep out pests and predators. Usted también puede necesitar el equipo para controlar el clima (temperatura y humedad), para regular el agua (por ejemplo, un sistema de rociadores para mantener la humedad de los caracoles y un sistema de drenaje), para proporcionar la luz y la sombra, y matar o mantener las plagas y depredadores . Some horticultural systems such as artificial lighting systems and water sprinklers may be adapted for snail culture. Algunos sistemas hortícolas, tales como sistemas de iluminación artificial y rociadores de agua puede ser adaptada para el cultivo de caracol. You will have better results if you use snails of the same kind and generation. Tendrás mejores resultados si se utilizan los caracoles de la misma clase y generación. Some recommend putting the hatchlings in another pen. Algunos recomiendan poner las crías en otro corral.

Four Systems: Snail farms may be outdoors; in buildings with a controlled climate; or in closed systems such as plastic tunnel houses or "greenhouses." Cuatro sistemas: las granjas de caracol puede estar al aire libre, en edificios con un clima controlado, o en sistemas cerrados como casas túnel de plástico o "invernaderos". In addition, snails may breed and hatch inside in a controlled environment and then (after 6 to 8 weeks) may be placed in outside pens to mature. Además, los caracoles pueden criar y eclosionan en el interior en un ambiente controlado y, a continuación (después de 6 a 8 semanas) pueden ser colocados en los corrales fuera de madurar.


Climate: A mild climate (59-75 F) with high humidity (75% to 95%) is best for snail farming, though most varieties can stand a wider range of temperatures. Clima: El clima templado (59 a 75 F) con alta humedad (75% a 95%) es el mejor para la cría de caracoles, aunque la mayoría de las variedades pueden soportar un amplio rango de temperaturas. The optimal temperature is 70 F for many varieties. La temperatura óptima es de 70 F por muchas variedades. When the temperature falls below 45 F, snails hibernate. Cuando la temperatura cae por debajo de 45 F, caracoles hibernan. Under 54 F the snails are inactive, and under 50 F, all growth stops. Menos de 54 F a los caracoles están inactivos, y menos de 50 F, que se detenga el crecimiento. When the temperature rises much above 80 F or conditions become too dry, snails estivate. Cuando la temperatura se eleva muy por encima de 80 ° F o las condiciones son demasiado secas, caracoles estivan. Wind is bad for snails because it speeds up moisture loss, and snails must retain moisture. El viento es malo para los caracoles, ya que acelera la pérdida de humedad, y los caracoles a retener la humedad.


Moisture: Snails need damp, not wet, environments. Humedad: Los caracoles necesitan húmedo, no mojado, los entornos. Although snails need moisture, you must drain wet or waterlogged soil to make it suitable for them. Similarly, rainwater must run off promptly. Si bien los caracoles necesitan humedad, debe de drenaje o anegadas suelo húmedo para que sea adecuado para ellos. Del mismo modo, el agua de lluvia se debe ejecutar de inmediato. Snails breathe air and may drown in overly wet surroundings. respirar aire caracoles y puede ahogarse en un entorno excesivamente húmedo. A soil moisture content of 80% of capacity is favorable. Un contenido de humedad del suelo de 80% de la capacidad es favorable. In the hours of darkness, air humidity over 80% will promote good snail activity and growth. En las horas de oscuridad, humedad del aire más de 80% a promover la actividad caracol buena y el crecimiento.


Ninety-nine percent of snail activity, including feeding, occurs in the cool, dark nighttime, with peak activity taking place 2 to 3 hours after darkness begins. Noventa y nueve por ciento de la actividad del caracol, incluyendo la alimentación, se produce en el, la noche oscura fría, con mayor actividad tiene lugar 2 a 3 horas después de la oscuridad comienza. The cooler temperature stimulates activity, and the nighttime dew helps the snail move easily. La temperatura más fría estimula la actividad, y el rocío de la noche ayuda a la decisión de caracol con facilidad. They hide in sheltered places during most of the day. Se esconden en lugares protegidos durante la mayor parte del día. If necessary, use misting sprayers, like those used for plant propagation, in dry climates to maintain adequate humidity and moisture levels. Si es necesario, el uso de nebulización pulverizadores, como los utilizados para la propagación de plantas, en climas secos para mantener la humedad adecuada y los niveles de humedad.


Soil: Use a good medium soil that has neither a lot of sand nor too much clay. Suelo: Utilizar un medio de buena tierra que no tiene ni un montón de arena, ni mucho barro también. Snails are unable to dig into hard, dry clay. Los caracoles no son capaces de cavar en la arcilla dura y seca. Soils with too much sand do not contain enough water. Suelos con mucha arena demasiado no contienen suficiente agua. Soil that contains 20% to 40% organic matter is good. The soil should be similar to that of a garden in which green, leafy vegetables thrive. If your snail farm contains plants, keep them wet and properly care for them. El suelo que contiene 20% a 40% de materia orgánica es buena. El suelo debe ser similar a la de un jardín en el que, verduras de hoja verde prosperar. Si la comunidad de caracol contiene plantas, mantenerlos húmedos y cuidar adecuadamente de ellos. Regularly remove any weeds. Elimine con las malas hierbas. Neutralize soil that is too acidic with lime to make it suitable (at about pH 7). Besides the pH value of the soil, calcium must be available either from the soil or another readily available source, since snail shells are 97% to 98% calcium carbonate. If in doubt, you can add a little ground limestone. Neutralizar el suelo es demasiado ácido con cal para que sea adecuado (alrededor de pH 7). Además del valor del pH del suelo, el calcio debe estar disponible ya sea de la tierra u otra fuente fácilmente disponible, ya que caracoles son un 97% a 98% carbonato de calcio. En caso de duda, se puede añadir un poco de piedra caliza molida. One researcher treats the soil with polyacrylamide at the rate of 12.5cc of a 160-g MA/one preparation in 250cc of water per kilogram of dry soil. Un investigador trata el suelo con la poliacrilamida, a razón de 12.5cc de 160 g de MA / un curso de preparación en 250cc de agua por kilogramo de suelo seco. This stabilization treatment helps the soil structure resist washing. Este tratamiento ayuda a la estabilización de la estructura del suelo resisten el lavado. This allows regular cleaning without destroying the crumb structure of the soil that is beneficial for egg laying. Esto permite que la limpieza regular sin destruir la estructura de la miga del suelo que es beneficioso para la puesta de huevos.


Snails dig in soil and ingest it. Los caracoles cavar en el suelo y lo ingieren. Good soil favors snail growth and provides some of their nutrition. Un buen suelo favorece el crecimiento del caracol y se ofrecen algunos de sus nutrientes. Lack of access to good soil may cause fragile shells even when the snails have well-balanced feed; the snails growth may lag far behind the growth of other snails on good soil. La falta de acceso a buena tierra puede causar conchas frágiles, incluso cuando los caracoles se alimentan bien-equilibrada, el crecimiento de los caracoles pueden quedarse muy por debajo del crecimiento de otros caracoles en buena tierra. Snails will often eat feed, then go eat dirt. Caracoles a menudo a comer pienso, luego comer tierra. Sometimes, they will eat only one or the other. A veces, van a comer sólo uno o el otro. This may be one reason that you should not crowd too many snails into too small a pen. Esto puede ser una razón que no deben invadir muchos caracoles demasiado en demasiado pequeño lápiz. The soil, unless frequently changed, will become fouled with mucus and droppings. El suelo, a menos que se cambian con frecuencia, se convertirá en obstruidas con moco y excrementos. Chemical changes also may occur in the soil. Los cambios químicos pueden también ocurrir en el suelo. A mixture of peat, clay, compost, CaCO3 at pH 7 makes a very good soil. Una mezcla de turba, arcilla, compost, CaCO3 a un pH de 7 hace un buen terreno muy. Leaf mold at pH 7 works almost as well. molde de la hoja a un pH de 7 funciona casi tan bien. Organic matter in the soil seems as important as carbonates. La materia orgánica en el suelo parece tan importante como los carbonatos. Soils that are richest in exchangeable calcium and magnesium stimulate growth best. Los suelos más ricos en calcio y magnesio intercambiables estimular el crecimiento mejor. Usable carbonates and total calcium are important. carbonatos de calcio total que puede utilizar y son importantes. Calcium may be added to the soil at the rate of 10 pounds per 100 square feet. El calcio puede ser añadido al suelo a razón de 10 libras por 100 pies cuadrados. Calcium may also be set out in a feeding dish or trough so the snails can eat it at will. El calcio también se puede fijar en una fuente de alimentación oa través de lo que el caracol puede comer a voluntad.


Pens and Enclosures Bolígrafos y Cajas
[Note: The US Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Standards for Snail-Rearing Facilities were revised March 2001 and are available at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/permits/downloads/snails_containment_guidelines.pdf .] [Nota: Los Animales de EE.UU. y del Servicio de Inspección de Sanidad Vegetal (APHIS) Normas de caracol de los hijos instalaciones fueron revisadas marzo de 2001 y están disponibles en http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/permits/downloads/snails_containment_guidelines.pdf . ]

Enclosures for snails are usually long and thin instead of square. Las cubiertas de los caracoles son generalmente largas y delgadas en lugar de cuadrados. This allows you to walk around (without harming the snails) and reach in the whole pen. Esto le permite caminar (sin dañar a los caracoles) y alcance en la pluma de su conjunto. The enclosure may be a trough with sides made of wood, block, fiber cement sheets, or galvanized sheet steel. El recinto puede ser un canal de paredes de madera, bloque, cemento hojas de fibra o de chapa de acero galvanizado. Cover it with screen or netting. Cubierta con pantalla o compensación. The covering will confine the snails and keep out birds and other predators. La cobertura se limitará a los caracoles y mantener a las aves y otros depredadores. Fences or walls are usually 2-feet high plus at least 5 inches into the ground. Las cercas o muros suelen ser de 2 metros de altura y por lo menos 5 pulgadas en el suelo. Fencing made of galvanized metal or hard-plastic sheets helps keep out some predators. Esgrima de metal galvanizado o de plástico duro ayuda a mantener las hojas de algunos depredadores. A cover will protect against heavy rain. Una cubierta protegerá de la lluvia pesada. Shade (which may be a fine mesh screen) on warm winter days helps keep the snails dormant. Sombra (que puede ser una pantalla de malla fina) en los días cálidos del invierno ayuda a mantener los caracoles latentes. Use 5mm mesh or finer for pen screens or fences. El uso de malla de 5 mm o más fino para las pantallas de lápiz o cercas. Pens containing baby snails will need a finer mesh. Corrales con caracoles bebé necesitará una malla más fina.


Snails like hiding places, especially during the warm daytime. Los caracoles como escondites, especialmente durante el calentamiento durante el día. For example, purchase plastic soil drainage pipes from the local garden center, split them in two lengthwise, and stack one layer one way and the next layer at a right angle. Por ejemplo, la compra de plástico tubos de drenaje del suelo del centro de jardinería local, dividido en dos a lo largo, y la pila de una capa de un lado y la siguiente capa en un ángulo recto. This will provide shelter and will increase by 50% the number of snails you can put in the pen. Esto proporcionará la vivienda y se incrementará en un 50% el número de caracoles que pueden poner en el corral.


A sprinkler system will ensure moisture when needed. Un sistema de rociadores se asegurará de la humedad cuando sea necesario. Turn it on at sunset. Póngalo en acción en extinción. If turned on early in the day, the moisture may drive snails out into hot sunshine. Si esta activado temprano en el día, la humedad puede conducir a los caracoles en el sol caliente. Monitor temperature and humidity using a thermometer and a hygrometer. Monitor de temperatura y humedad con un termómetro y un higrómetro.


Although you can use fencing for the enclosure's sides, the bottom, if not the ground or trays of dirt, must be a surface more solid than screening. Aunque puede utilizar vallas para el cerramiento de los laterales, la parte inferior, si no el suelo o las bandejas de tierra, debe ser una superficie más sólida que el cribado. A snail placed in a wire-mesh-bottom pen will keep crawling, trying to get off the wires and onto solid, more comfortable ground. Un caracol colocado en una malla de alambre de la pluma de fondo seguirá arrastrándose, tratando de bajar los cables y en, más cómodo tierra firme.


Preventing escapes : In an open pen, curve the top of the fences inward in a half circle to confine the vineyard snail. H. Prevención de fugas: En un corral abierto, la curva de la parte superior de las vallas hacia el interior en un semicírculo para confinar el caracol H. viñedo. aspersa will escape from such an open pen, so you could use an electric fence to contain them. aspersa escapará de esa pluma abierta, así que podría usar una cerca eléctrica para contenerlos. [The electric fence top has two or more thin wires that are 2 to 4mm apart. [La tapa de la cerca eléctrica tiene dos o más alambres delgados que son de 2 a 4 mm de distancia. Each wire carries the opposite charge of the wire next to it. Cada cable lleva la carga opuesta del cable a su lado. Use a battery or transformer to supply 4 to 12 volts to the wire. Utilice una batería o transformador de suministro de 4 a 12 voltios para el cable. A snail will get a mild shock and retract when it crawls over a wire and touches a second wire.] Un caracol se recibe un choque eléctrico leve y se retraen cuando se arrastra sobre un alambre y toca a un segundo cable.]


Another technique to confine snails is to bend the fence top inward into a sharp "V" shape with about a 20 angle. Otra técnica para limitar los caracoles es doblar la tapa de la cerca hacia el interior en un fuerte "V" con un ángulo de 20. The snail's shell will hit the bent-back part of the screen before he can reach up and start crawling on it. El caparazón de la tortuga llegará a la devolución de parte doblada de la pantalla antes de que pueda llegar y empezar a rastrear en él. This blocks him, and the angled screen automatically compensates for the size of the snail. Esto le bloquea y la pantalla en ángulo compensa automáticamente el tamaño del caracol.


Another alternative, especially handy for solid wall enclosures, is to attach to the wall a horizontal piece of screen that projects inward several inches over the enclosure. Make the screen with material like nylon monofilament that is moderately stiff and springy yet easily flexible. Otra alternativa, especialmente útil para los armarios de pared sólida, es unir a la pared de una pieza horizontal de la pantalla que se proyecta hacia el interior de varias pulgadas sobre el recinto. Hacer la pantalla con un material como el monofilamento de nylon que es moderadamente dura y elástica y bien comunicada flexible. On the inside edge of the screen, remove the cross fibers until you've created a fringe several inches wide. En el borde interior de la pantalla, quitar las fibras cruzadas hasta que haya creado una franja de varios centímetros de ancho. As the would-be escapee crawls on the underside of the screen and moves out onto the fringe, his weight pulls several individual fibers down. A medida que el aspirante a fugitivo se arrastra en la parte inferior de la pantalla y se mueve en la franja, su peso arrastra varias fibras individuales hacia abajo. One by one, another fiber gets away from the snail and springs back up out of reach. Uno por uno, otro de fibra se aleja de los caracoles y los resortes copia de seguridad fuera de su alcance. Eventually the snail is dangling by a thread. Finalmente, el caracol está colgando de un hilo. He then falls because the surface area is not big enough to crawl on. Luego cae porque la superficie no es lo suficientemente grande como para rastrear el.


Since snails usually will not cross a copper band, another solution is to top the fence with 3-inch-wide (or wider) copper band. Dado que los caracoles por lo general no se cruzan una banda de cobre, otra solución es a la parte superior de la valla con una pulgada de ancho (o mayor) de cobre banda-3. You could bend the band so that part of it faces inward and is parallel to the pen floor. Usted podría doblar la banda por lo que parte de ella está mirando hacia adentro y es paralela al piso de la pluma. If the band is placed too close to the ground, rain may wash soil against the copper and leave a residue that may enable the snail to cross it. Si la banda se coloca demasiado cerca del suelo, la lluvia puede lavar el suelo contra el cobre y deja un residuo que puede permitir a los caracoles para cruzarlo. Also, be sure to bury the bottom of the fence deep enough into the ground so that the snails don't dig under it. Además, asegúrese de enterrar la parte inferior de la valla lo suficientemente profunda en la tierra para que los caracoles no cavar debajo de ella.


Pens with gardens : An alternate method is to make a square pen with a 10-foot-square garden in it. Bolígrafos con jardines: Un método alternativo es
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Bibliography Bibliografía
These references are from searches of several major databases including NAL's AGRICOLA database. When available, abstracts are provided. Citations for NAL-owned publications include an NAL call number. Information about NAL's lending policies is available from the Document Delivery Services Branch


Assessment of the molluscicidal activity of a copper complex compound.
Davis, PR; van Schagen, JJ; Widmer, MA; Craven, TJ; Slug and snail pests in agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 24-26 September 1996. 1996, 53-62. Includes references.
(Language: English)

"At a snail's pace."
Malouf, Mary Brown. Dallas Observer , February 8-14, 1996, pp. 22-27.

["Automation of the fattening of escargots."] "Automatisatie van de vetmesting van escargots."
De Grisse, J., and A. De Grisse. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent (Belgium) 56, no.1 (1991): 83-96. Includes references.
(Language: Dutch; summaries in English.)
Abstract: This reference describes an automated system in which snails are placed in receptacles that hang from rails. The holder can easily be moved from one location to another to perform different tasks, eg, feeding or cleaning.

["Battery for snail fattening (Helix aspersa Mueller) assigned to professional breeding."] "Een vetmestingsbatterij voor consumptieslakken (Helix aspersa Mueller), bestemd voor de professionele slakkenkweek."
De Grisse, A. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen RijksuniversiteitGent (Belgium) 55 (1990): 127-138. Includes references and illustrations.


Biochemical composition of Helix snails: influence of genetic and physiological factors.
Gomot, A. Journal of Molluscan Studies . 1998, 64: no. 2, 173-181. Includes references.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: SH236 B65 no. 5 5
[Biology and Production of Escargots.] Biologia E Cultivo De Escargots.
Lobao, Vera Lucia; Barros, Helenice Pereira; and Myriam Tereza Horikawa. Sao Paulo: Governo do Estado de Sao Paulo, Secretaria da Agricultura, Coordenadoria da Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Institute de Pesca, [1988]. 12 pp. Includes illustrations.

["Bionomy, importance and protection of Helix pomatia.] Bionomia, vyznam a ochrana druhu Helix pomatia."
Lucivjanska, V. The First Czecho Slovak Seminar on Snail culture. Nitra (CSFR). May 17, 1991. Ustav Vedeckotechnickych Informacii pre Polnohospodarstvo, Nitra (CSFR). [ Collection of Papers. The First Czecho-Slovak Seminar on Snail Culture. ] Zbornik Referatov. Prvy Celostatny Seminar Chov Slimakov . Nitra. Ustav Vedeckotechnickych Informacii pre Polnohospodarstvo. 1990. 1990. pp. 7-24. Includes references and 13 graphs.

["Boxes for rearing the very young Helix aspersa Mueller, the edible snail."] "Kweekdozen voor infantielen van de consumptieslak Helix aspersa Mueller."
De Grisse, A. Mededelingen van de Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent (Belgium) 55 (1990): 47-57. Includes references and illustrations.


Calcium provision to eggs in two populations of Helix aspersa by parents fed a diet high in lead.
Beeby, A.; Richmond, L. Journal of Molluscan Studies . 2001, 67: no. 1, 1-6. Includes references.
(Language: English)
"California snail ranchers appear on the right track."
Stein, Mark A. Arizona Republic , final edition, April 1, 1987, Food Section, p. FD13.

NAL Call No.: QH301.C63
"'Central arousal' and sexual responsiveness in the snail, Helix aspersa."
Adamo, Shelley A., and Ronald Chase. Behavioral Neural Biology . 55 (1991): 194-213.

Changes in the reproductive system of the snail Helix aspersa caused by mucus from the love dart.
Koene, JM; Chase, C. Journal of Experimental Biology . 1998, 201: 15, 2313-2319. Includes references.
(Language: English)

["Characterization of the edible snail market [in Belgium]."] "Caracterisation du marche des escargots."
Gicart, I. Agricontact (Belgium). Courrier du Ministere de l' Agriculture , No. 260 (April 1994), pp. 11-13.

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6M37
[Complete Guide to the Raising of Snails.] Guida Completa All'allevamento Delle Chiocciole.
Marasco, Francesco; and Corrado Murciano. Milano: G. De Vecchi, 1981. 124 pp. Includes references, photos and illustrations.

Consumption of three garden plants in west Texas by Helix aspersa.
Roberson, M.; Moorhead, DL Southwestern Naturalist . 1999, 44: 1, 90-93. Includes references.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: 49-F84
["Contribution to production of 'Petit-gris' snails 'Helix aspersa Muller'. I. Reproduction and hatching of juveniles under controlled thermo-hygrometric conditions."] "Contribution a l'elevage de l'escargot Petit-Gris: Helix aspersa Muller (Mollusque gasteropode Pulmone Stylommatophore). I. Reproduction et eclosion des jeunes, en batiment et en conditions thermo-hygrometriques controlees."
Daguzan, J. Annales de Zootechnie [Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique] 30, no. 2 (1981): 249-272. Includes references, tables, and illustrations.
(Language: French; summary in English.)

NAL Call No.: 49-F84
["Contribution to production of 'Petit-gris' snails (Helix aspersa Muller). II. Development of juveniles from hatching until 12 weeks of age under controlled housing and rearing conditions France."] "Contribution a l'elevage de l'escargot Petit-gris: Helix aspersa Muller (mollusque gasteropode pulmone stylommatophore). II. Evolution de la population juvenile de l'eclosion a l'age de 12 semaines, en batiment et en conditions d'elevage controlees."
Daguzan, J. and H. Rouet. Annales de Zootechnie [Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique] 31, no.2 (1982): 87-110. Includes bibliography, tables, and illustrations.
(Language: French; summary in English.)

["Contribution to snail culture with the system of vertical planes."] "Aportacion a la cria de helicidos con el sistema de planos verticales."
Cuellar Cuellar, R., and JC Fontanilles Perez. Zootechnia (Spain) 34 (October-December 1985): 227-229. Includes illustrations and 13 references.
(Language: Spanish; summaries in English.)

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
"A contribution to the study of the beneficial effects of soil on the growth of Helix aspersa."
Gomot, A.; Bruckert, S.; Gomot, L.; and JC Combe. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association . [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 76-83. Includes references.

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
"Contribution to the study of the effect of stocking density in the culture of Helix aspersa (Muller)."
Stephanou, D. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association . Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Eicicoltori, 1986. pp. 27-33. Includes references.

["Contribution to the study of the snail breeding. Trial of the rearing in a conditionned building."] "Contribution al' etude de l' heliciculture. Essai d' elevage en batiment conditionne."
Ksontini, L. These (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine). Sidi Thabet (Tunisia): Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire, 1993. 215 pp.
(Language: French; summary in English.)

NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
Contributions of genetics of snail farming and conservation.
De Matos, RMA In the series analytic: Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of the Malacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England . I. Henderson, ed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph Series, no. 41 (1989): 11-18. Thornton Heath, [England]: British Crop Protection Council, 1989.

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
"Copper sheet, an effective barrier in the rearing of Helix pomatia (L.)."
Moens, R.; Gigot, J.; and J. Vase. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association . Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Eicicoltori, 1986. pp. 23-26. Includes references and illustrations.
Abstract : Describes equipment for rearing Helix pomatia, particularly barriers such as copper or sheet-metal.

Dart receipt promotes sperm storage in the garden snail Helix aspersa.
Rogers, DW; Chase, R. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology . 2001, 50: 2, 122-127. Includes references.
(Language: English)

Dart shooting influences paternal reproductive success in the snail Helix aspersa (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora).
Landolfa, MA; Green, DM; Chase, R. Behavioral Ecology . 2001, 12: 6, 773-777.
(Language: English)

["Description of the Flemish snail farming method for the edible snail husbandry [minilivestock]"]. "Beschrijving van en resultaten bekomen met de vlaamse kweekmethode voor consumptieslakken."
Grisse, A. de. Mededelingen-Faculteit-Landbouwkundige-en-Toegepaste-Biologische-Wetenschappen-Universiteit-Gent (Belgium). (1996), 61(1):85-117. ISSN: 0368-9697. [Address: Gent Univ. (Belgium). (Bélgica). Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. Dept of Crop Protection]

Determinants of paternity in the garden snail Helix aspersa.
Rogers, DW; Chase, R. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology . 2002, 52: 4, 289-295.
(Language: English)

"Different metric traits among three strains of apple snail, Pomaceacanaliculata. "
Fujio, Y.; Kurihara, H.; and E. Brand. Tohoku Journal of Agricultural Research (Japan), 41(March 1991): 61-68. Includes 16 referencs, tables and illustrations.
(Language: Japanese; summaries in English.)

Direct and correlated responses to individual selection for large adult weight in the edible snail Helix aspersa Muller.
Dupont-Nivet, M.; Mallard, J.; Bonnet, JC; Blanc, JM Journal of Experimental Zoology . 2000, 287: 1, 80-85. Includes references.
(Language: English)

["Discussion on snail rearing."] "Spytali sme sa za Vas."
Chov-Slimakov (Slovak Republic) 4, no.3 (May 1993): 7-9.
(Language: Slovak; summary in English.)
Abstract: Summary of a seminar held in Sumvald (Czech Republic) on snail culture. Discussions included feeding (vitamin supplements, weight gain, consumption, feeding cycle, diet, nutrition, etc.), population density, reproduction, and the economics of snail farming.

["Dispersal in the edible snail, Helix pomatia: a test case for present generalizations [dispersal concepts]."] "Dispersion de l' escargot Helix pomatia: etude de cas pour une generalisation [concepts de dispersion]."
Hansson, L. Acta-Oecologica (France) 12 (1991): 761-769. Includes 20 references.
(Language: French; summaries in English and French.)
Abstract : Discusses the effects population change, distribution, structure, and density on helix pomatia. Includes information on its habitat, movement and lifespan. Examples and models are given from Sweden, Scandinavia, and Western Europe.

Dissociation of food-finding and tentacle-lowering, following food-attraction conditioning in the snail, Helix aspersa.
Ungless, MA Behavioural Processes . 2001, 53: 1-2, 97-101. Includes references.
(Language: English)

["Document on the breeding of the giant African snail Achatina achatina."] "Note sur l' elevage de l' escargot geant africain: Achatina achatina."
Zongo, D.; Coulibaly, M.; Diambra, OH; and E. Adjiri. Nature et Faune (FAO-PNUE) 6, no. 2 (April-June 1990): 32-44, 62-66.
(Language: English and French.)

NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
The economics of commercial domestication of the African giant land snail Archachatina (Calachatina) marginata (Swainson) in Nigeria .
Olufokunbi, B., Phillips, EO, Omidiji, JO, Ogbonna, UO, Makinde, HT, and OJ Apansile. In the series analytic: Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of the Malacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England . I. Henderson, ed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph Series, no. 41 (1989): 41-88. Thornton Heath, [England]: British Crop Protection Council, 1989.

NAL Call No.: 41.8-C163
"Edible land snail production under natural climatic conditions in Nova Scotia."
Lirette, A.; Lewis, JC; MacPherson, MD; and JP MacIntyre. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 72 (March 1992): 155-159. Includes references.
(Language: English; summary in French.)

NAL Call No.: S41.E93
"Edible snails."
Elmslie, LJ Evolution of Domesticated Animals. Mason, Ian L., ed. London: Longman, 1984. pp. 432-433. Includes 8 references.

"Effect of courtship and repeated copulation on egg production in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum."
Baur, B; and A. Baur. (Institute of Zoology, University of Basel, Rheinsprung, Basel 4052, Switzerland.) Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 23, no. 3 (1992): 201-206. Includes 31 references.
Abstract: The results of laboratory studies show that repeated copulation within a reproductive season stimulates egg production while a longer display of coutship behavior had no effect on egg production. Repeated copulation, however, did not improve hatch rate or accelerate egg laying.

NAL Call No.: 10-J822
"Effect of temperature and photoperiod on growth and reproduction of Helix aspersa var. maxima."
Jess, S.; Marks, RJ Journal of Agricultural Science . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. May 1998. v. 130 (pt.3) p. 367-372.

Effect of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on fitness in snails (Helix aspersa).
Laskowski, R.; Hopkin, SP Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety . 1996, 34: 1, 59-69. Includes references.
(Language: English)

["Effects of feeding and breeding environment on the performances and corporeal composition of Helix pomatia, Helix lucorum and Helix aspersa."] "Effectto dell' alimentazione e dell' ambiente di allevamento sulle prestazioni produttive e sulla composizione corporea di Helix pomatia, Helix lucorum e Helix aspersa."
Bittante, G.; Gallo, L.; and F. Pellizzari. Informatore Agrario (Italy) 44, no. 31 (August 19, 1988): 49-60. Includes references.

NAL Call No.: QL336 A3
"The effects of temperature and photoperiod on growth and maturation rate of Limicolaria flammea Mueller (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Achatinidae)."
Egonmwan, RI Journal of African Zoology. [Revue de Zoologie Africaine] 105, no. 1 (February 1991): 69-75. Includes 13 references, tables, and illustrations.

Elements of cold hardiness in a littoral population of the land snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).
Ansart, A.; Vernon, P.; Daguzan, J. Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology . 2002, 172: 7, 619-625.
(Language: English)

"Enterprising 'ranchers' keep escargots growing."
Strobel, Bill. San Jose Mercury News , Morning final edition, March 3, 1987, p. 8B.
Abstract : This short article describes the experiences of snail-ranching business partners in California.

"Escargot to go 'little grays' bring couple a little green."
Tabor, Gail. The Arizona Republic , Final Chaser edition, March 29, 1993 , p. B1.
Abstract : This article briefly describes Terry Beckman's snail farming operation and his company, Escargot Express.

Evaluation of the quality of live Helix aspersa snails and the ready-to-eat product. [Hodnoceni jakosti suroviny a vyrobku z hlemyzde Helix aspersa.]
Stegnerova, H.; Lukesova, D.; Polak, P.; Haringova, L. Veterinarstvi . 1998, 48: 2, 55-57. Includes references.
(Language: Czech)

Evolution of genetic variability in a population of the edible snail, Helix aspersa Muller, undergoing domestication and short-term selection.
Dupont-Nivet, M.; Mallard, J.; Bonnet, JC; Blanc, JM Heredity . 2001, 87: 2, 129-135. Includes references.
(Language: English)

Evolutionary history of the land snail Helix aspersa in the Western Mediterranean: preliminary results inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Guiller, A.; Coutellec-Vreto, MA; Madec, L.; Deunff, J. Molecular Ecology . 2001, 10: 1, 81-87. Includes references.
(Language: English)

Experimental hybridization between two sub-species of snails (Helix aspersa aspersa and Helix aspersa maxima): consequences for fertility, survival and growth.
de Vaufleury, AG; Borgo, R.; Invertebrate Reproduction and Development . 2001, 40: 2-3, 217-226. Includes references.
(Language: English)

["Experimental study of the impact of snail mix feeding on the growth of Helix aspersa aspersa Muller."] "Voederproeven met de consumptieslak Helix aspersa aspersa Mueller."
De Grisse, A. Mededelingen van de Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent (Belgium) 55, no.1 (1990): 59-71. Includes 12 references, tables, and illustrations.
(Language: Dutch.)

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
"Experiments on the nutrition of Helix cincta (Kobelt) and Helix aspersa (Muller)."
Stephanou, D. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association . [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 42-49. Includes references. [Note: Article contains feed composition tables.]

NAL Call No.: QL55.A1L3
"Factors affecting the food intake, growth and protein utilization in the Helix aspersa snail. Protein content of the diet and animal age."
Sanz-Sampelayo, MR; Fonolla, J.; and FG Extremera. Laboratory Animals [London: Royal Society of Medicine Services] 25, no. 4 (October 1991): 291-298. Includes references.
Abstract : Food intake, growth and protein utilization were studied in the Helix aspersa snail by means of a nutritional balance experiment. This was designed in a 5 X 11 factorial arrangement involving 5 diets of different protein content (10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 and 20.0%) and 11 animal ages (ranging over 15 to 180 days of age). Dietary protein content and animal age determined food intake and protein utilization. The variations of dry matter and protein intake rates, growth rates, growth efficiency factors and protein retention rates, depending on dietary protein content or animal age were in agreement with what happens in other animals. These results suggest that there is no need to use diets with more than 17.5% of crude protein in these animals. XAU: Animal Estacion Experimental del Zaidin (CSIC), Granada, Spain.

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6F3 v.1
Farming Snails: Learning about Snails, Building a Pen, Food and Shelter Plants.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Better Farming Series no. 33. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1986. 58 pp. Includes illustrations.

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6F3 v.2
Farming Snails: Choosing Snails, Care and Harvesting, Further Improvement.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Better Farming Series no. 34. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1986. 36pp. Includes illustrations.

Feeding behaviour of juvenile snails (Helix pomatia) to four plant species grown at elevated atmospheric CO2.
Ledergerber, S.; Leadley, PW; Stocklin, J.; Baur,B. Acta Oecologica . 1998, 19: 1, 89-95. Includes references.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
"Feeding of the giant African snail Achatina achatina (Linne'): some feeds compared."
Esobe, SO Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association . [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 50-53. Includes references.

NAL Call No.: 423.92-B63
["Feeding of Helix pomatia (L.) (Mollusca, Gasteropoda, Helicidae) in commercial rearing Edible snail, weight gains."] "Note sull'alimentazione di Helix pomatia (L.) (Mollusca, Gasteropoda, Helicidae) in allevamenti commerciali."
Bolchi Serini, G.; Rota, P.; and F. Tacchini. Bollettino De Zoologia Agraria E Di Bachicoltura vol. 16, pp. 99-111. Milano: Universita degli Studi di Milano, 1981 (pub. 1982). Includes references and illustrations.

Field observations on feeding of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller.
Iglesias, J.; Castillejo, J. Journal of Molluscan Studies . 1999, 65: 4, 411-423. Includes references.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
"Final fattening and outdoor breeding of the edible snail Helix aspersa."
Chevallier, H. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association . [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale, 1986. pp. 1-8. Includes references and illustrations.
Includes references.

Food-attraction conditioning in the snail, Helix pomatia.
Teyke, T. Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology . 1995, 177: 4, 409-414. Includes references.
(Language: English)

Freezing tolerance versus freezing susceptibility in the land snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda: Helicidae).
Ansart, A.; Vernon, P.; Daguzan, J. CryoLetters . 2001, 22: 3, 183-190. Includes references.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: HD9438.E343F83 1992
[The French Market and Snail Production Economy.] Le Marche Francais et L'economie De La Production De L'escargot: Dossiers Economiques.
Aubert, Claude. Paris: Institut Technique de L'aviculture, 1992. 47 pp.

NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
"Genetic and Environmental Variability of Adult Size in Some Stocks of the Edible Snail, Helix Aspersa."
Dupont, Nivet MA Guiller, and JC Bonnet. Journal of Zoology . 1997, 241(4):757-765. Surgeres, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Domaine du Magneraud, Heliciculture, BP 52, 17700 Surgeres, France.

["The golden years of the Italian snail."] "Gli anni d' oro della chiocciola italiana."
Avagnina, G. Informatore Zootecnico (Italy) 37, no.12 (June 1990): 59-62.
(Language: Italian.)

NAL Call No.: 41.8 V6439
["Growth ability and incubation of snails in the interior husbandry of snail (Review)."] "Rastove schopnosti a inkubacia v interierovom chove slimakov."
Puzder, M.; and F. Lesnik. Veterinarstvi (CSFR) 42 (November 1992): 423- 424.
Abstract : Discusses rearing techniques, reproduction, and developmental stages of helix aspersa.

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
"The growth of Helix aspersa in Lazio (central Italy): late-hatched snails."
Costamagna, A. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association . [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 18-22. Includes references.

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
"Growth of Helix aspersa in the presence or absence of adults of the same species or of another species (Helix pomatia)."
Marciano, P. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association . [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 67-75. Includes references.

Growth, mortality and fecundity in successive generations of Helix aspersa Muller cultured indoors and crowding effects on fast-, medium- and slow-growing snails of the same clutch.
Lazaridou-Dimitriadou M; Alpoyanni E; Baka M; Brouziotis Th; Kifonidis, N.; Mihaloudi, E.; Sioula, D.; Vellis, G. Journal of Molluscan Studies . 1998, 64: 1, 67-74. Includes references.
(Language: English)

"Growth, mortality and feeding rates of the snail Helix Aspersa at different population densities in the laboratory, and the depression of activity of helicid snails by other individuals, or their mucus.
Dan, N.; and SER Bailey. Journal of Molluscan Studies (48):257-65.

"Growth, mortality and fecundity in successive generations of Helix aspersa Muller cultured indoors and crowding effects on fast-, medium- and slow-growing snails of the same clutch."
Lazaridou, Dimitriadou M; Alpoyanni, E; Baka, M; Brouziotis, Th; Kifonidis, N; Mihaloudi, E; Sioula, D; Vellis, G. Journal of Molluscan Studies . 1998, 64(1):67-74. ISSN: 0260-1230

"Growth patterns and morphological features of juvenile Helix aspersa from west Texas."
Roberson, M; Moorhead, DL. Southwestern Naturalist (1999), 44(1):93-96. ISSN: 0038-4909.

"Growth, reproduction and activity rhythms in two species of edible snails, Helix aspersa and Helix lucorum, in non-24-hour light cycles."
Lazaridou Dimitriadou, M.; and SER Bailey. Journal of Zoology (United Kingdom) 225,no.3 (1991): 381-393. Includes 28 references.

["The growth of snail in breeding."] "Crescita della chiocciola in allevamento."
Elmslie, L. Elicicoltura (Italy) 29, no.3 (December 1992): 10-11. (Language: Italian.)

[Handbook on the Breeding of Giant African Snails.] Nunywe Wema Kleun Ee Kunkpla Gwin Nyinyi E. Guide Pratique D' Elevage D' Escargots Geants Africains.
Hardouin, J.; Codjia, JTC; and JC Heymans. Cotonou (Benin), 1993. 69 pp.
(Language: Fon, French.)

Heavy metal toxicity in the snail Helix aspersa maxima reared on commercial farms: cellular pathology.
Bradley, MD; Runham, NW Slug & snail pests in agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 24-26 September 1996 . 1996, 353-358. Includes references.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: S441.A475
Heliculture is hot and markets are many: snail farmers demonstrate that there's more than one way to sell a snail. 1. 1.
Silva, B. AgVentures . Blackwell, OK : Schatz Pub. Group, c1997-. Feb/Mar 1999. v. 3 (1) p. 47-48. 47-48.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: S441.A475
Heliculture is hot and markets are many: snail farmers demonstrate that there's more than one way to sell a snail. 2. 2.
Silva, B. AgVentures . Blackwell, OK : Schatz Pub. Group, c1997-. Apr/May 1999. v. 3 (2) p. 44-46, 61.
(Language: English)
NAL Call No.: SF597.S6B66 1990
[Helix Aspersa Snail; Biology, Farming.] L'escargot Helix Aspersa: Biologie, Elevage.
Bonnet, Jean-Claude; Aupinel, Pierrick; and Jean-Louis Vrillon. In the series: Du Labo au Terrain. Paris: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 1990. 124 pp. Includes references.

[Helix Pomatia and Other Edible Snails: Students' Study.] Vinbjergsnegle Og Andre Spiselige Snegle.
Fausboell, HC; Larsen, EK; Moeller, H.; Nielsen, AMK; and JM Rahner. Copenhagen (Denmark): Kongelige Veterinaer og Landbohoejskole, 1989. 99 pp. Includes 29 references, tables, and illustrations.
(Language: Danish.)

Humic acid: a growth factor for Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).
Elmslie, LJ Journal of Molluscan Studies . 1998, 64: 3, 400-401. Includes references.
(Language: English)

["The importance of soil in the interier farming of snail Helix aspersa."] "Vyznam hliny v interierovom chove slimakov Helix aspersa."
Uhrincat, M.; Tancin, V.; Mihina, S. Journal of Farm Animal Science (Slovakia), no. 28(1995):277-281. Vyskumny Ustav Zivocisnej Vyroby, Nitra (Slovakia)

"In Britain, snails are catching on slowly."
Jackson, Maggie. Record, (Northern New Jersey), January 22, 1989, Special Sections, p. 029

Influence of egg cannibalism on growth, survival and feeding in hatchlings of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora).
Desbuquois, C. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development . 1997, 37: 2, 191-202. Includes references.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6S52
"The influence of cannibalistic egg eating on the growth of young Arianta arbustorum (L.) (Helicidae)."
Baur, B. Snail Farming Research: A Collection of Papers Published in Conjunction with the First International Award for Research on Snail Farming by The Italian Snail Farmers Association . [Scientific Committee of the Italian Snail Farmers Association, trans. and ed.] Cherasco, Italy: Associazione Nazionale Elicicoltori, 1986. pp. 9-17. Includes references.

["Influence of creeping substrate and of a mixture artificial diet and soil on the growth of the edible snail Helix aspersa maxima."] "Invloed van grond als kruipsubstraat en als toevoegsel aan het voeder op de groei van de consumptieslak Helix aspersa maxima (Gros Gris)."
Grisse, A. de. Defloor, J. Mededelingen-Faculteit-Landbouwkundige-en-Toegepaste-Biologische-Wetenschappen-Universiteit-Gent (Belgium). (1996). 61(1):119-127. [Address: Gent Univ. (Belgium). (Bélgica). Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. Dept. of Crop Protection.] ISSN: 0368-9697.

"Influence of egg cannibalism on growth, survival and feeding in hatchlings of the land snail Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora)."
Desbuquois, C. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development . 1997, 37(2):191-202. ISSN: 0926-5287.

The influence of ingestive conditioning on food choices in the land snail Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora).
Desbuquois, C.; Daguzan, J. Journal of Molluscan Studies . 1995, 61: 3, 353-360. Includes references.
(Language: English)

["Influence of mixing different soil types [chalk, sand, leaf mold, peat] with feed on the growth of the edible snail Helix aspersa maxima (Gros gris)"]. "Invloed van het toevoegen van enkele grondsoorten aan het voeder op de groei van van de consumptieslak Helix aspersa maxima (Gros gris)."
Grisse, A. de. Defloor, J.; Vercauteren, F. Mededelingen-Faculteit-Landbouwkundige-en-Toegepaste-Biologische-Wetenschappen-Universiteit-Gent (Belgium). (1996). 61(1):129-139. [Address: Gent Univ. (Belgium). (Bélgica). Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences. Dept of Crop Protection] ISSN: 0368-9697

Influence of Roman snail (Helix pomatia L.) farm rearing upon its reproduction and growth rate.
Lysak, A.; Mach-Paluszkiewicz, Z.; Ligaszewski, M. Annals of Animal Science . 2001, 1: 2, 63-74. Includes references.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: QH301.C63
"The interactions of courtship, feeding and locomotion in the behavioural hierarchy of the snail Helix aspersa."
Adamo, Shelley A. and Chase, Ronald. Behavioral Neural Biology 55 (1991): 1-18.

[Introduction to anatomy and physiology of farmed snails.] Wazny dla praktyki weterynaryjnej zarys anatomii, fizjologii oraz parametrow zoohigienicznych ladowych slimakow hodowlanych.
Wasowski, R.; Sowinski, G.; Adamiak, Z. Magazyn Weterynaryjny . 1997, 6: 3, 202-206. Includes references.
(Language: Polish)

Invertebrates [Minilivestock] Farming [Guinea Pigs (Cavia Porcellus), African Giant Snails, Insects, Cricetomys, Butterfly Ranching, Silkworm, Common Birdwing (Ornithoptera Priamus), Graphium Weiskei.] Proceedings of the Seminar Held at La Union (Philippines), November 1992.
Hardouin, J.; and CE Stievenart, eds. La Union (Philippines). November, 1992. Antwerpen (Belgium): [np], 1993. 49 pp. Includes bibliography.

["Is snail farming an economic activity?"] "Esiste l'azienda elicola tra le attivita economiche?"
Bigliardi E. Annali della Facolta di Medicina Veterinaria (Universita di Parma) 11 (1991): 55-70. Inlcudes references, tables, and figures.
(Language: Italian; summaries in English.)
Abstract : Describes the market for snails in Italy where production is on the rise and demand currently outstrips supply. Includes data on production costs, market prices, imports, species currently farmed, and on consumption. In Italy, Helix aspersa is the most common species.

Lead reduces shell mass in juvenile garden snails (Helix aspersa).
Beeby, A.; Richmond, L.; Herpe, F. Environmental Pollution . 2002, 120: 2, 283-288. Includes references.
(Language: English)

NAL Call No.: QL55.I5
Learning in the land snail Helix aspersa.
Ray, S. Animal Technology [Sussex] : The Institute. Dec 1998. v. 49 (3) p. 135-143. Includes references.
(Language: English)

["Life cycle of the escargot (Helix aspersa Muller 1774) in Thailand."] "Wongchon chiwit khong hoi escargot (Helix aspersa Muller 1774) nai Prathet Thai."
Tanapan Pattamanon; Chokchai Senawong; and Nitaya Lauhachinda. [ Proceedings of the 24th National Conference: Poster Session. [January 27-29, 1986, Bangkok (Thailand)]] Raingan Kan Prachum Thang Wichakan Khrang Thi 24 Phak Poster. Bangkok (Thailand) . Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University, 1986. pp. 8-14.
(Language: Thai; Summaries in English and Thai.)

The localization of aluminium in the digestive gland of the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa.
Brooks, AW; White, KN Tissue and Cell . 1995, 27: 1, 61-72. Includes references.
(Language: English)

[Management Possibility of the Land Snail Megalobulimus Maximus as Protein Source in San Martin [Peru].] Posibilidad De Manejo Del Caracol Terrestre Megalobulimus Maximus Como Recurso Proteinico En San Martin [Peru].
Campoverde V, L. Lima (Peru): Universidad Nacional Agraria La MolinaLima, 1992. 83 pp. Thesis (Mag Sc).

[Manual for Breeding Giant African Snails in the Tropics.] Manuel D'elevage Des Escargots Geants Africains Sous Les Tropiques . Stievenart C.; and J. Hardouin. Wageningen, Netherlands: Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)[Address: CTA, Postbus 380, 6700 AJ Wageningen, Netherlands], 1990. 39 pp. Includes 56 references.
(Language: French.)
Abstract : This book discusses the giant African snail (archachatina and Achatina). It focuses on its biology, breeding techniques, predators and diseases, and its commercial value.

["Marketing in snail rearing with regard to climatic conditions in Slovak and Czech Republics."] "Pohlad na marketing v chove slimakov vzhladom na klimaticke podmienky v Slovenskej av Ceskej republike."
Lutisan, J. Chov Slimakov (Slovak Republic) 4, no. 6 (November 1993): p. 6. 6.

["Materials and structures in the fencing [for Helix breeding]."] "Materiali e strutture nei recinti [per l' allevamento delle Helix."]
Elicicoltura (Italy) 29, no.3 (December 1992): p. 12. 12.
(Language: Italian.)

NAL Call No.: SF597. S6A92 1987
[Memento for the Snail Farmer.] Memento De L'eleveur D'escargots.
Aubert, Claude. Paris: Institut Technique de L'aviculture, 1987. 323 pp. Includes references, graphs, photos, and illustrations.
(Language: French.)

Metal concentrations in Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa and Arion rufus: a comparative study.
Menta, C.; Parisi, V. Environmental Pollution . 2001, 115: 2, 205-208. Includes references.
(Language: English)

Methods for toxicity assessment of contaminated soil by oral or dermal uptake in land snails: metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation.
de Vaufleury, AG; Pihan, F.; Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry . 2002, 21: 4, 820-827. Includes references.
(Language: English)

["Mixed culture on Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in the south of Chile."] "Cultivo mixto de Helix aspersa Muller (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) en el sur de Chile."
Zapata M, J.; and RC Zuleta. Agro Ciencia (Chile) 10 (June 1994): 33-36. Includes 12 references.
(Language: Spanish; summaries in English.)

["Morbidity and mortality of snails and methods of their investigation."] "Vysetrovanie morbidity a mortality slimakov."
Benko, L. Chov Slimakov (Slovak Republic) 4 (May 1993): 5-6.
(Language: Slovak; summary in English.)

["The need of [snail] production [in Italy]."] "Bisogno di produzione [di chiocciole in Italia]."
Elicicoltura (Italy) no.1 (April 1993): 1-2.
(Language: Italian.)
Abstract: Includes production data and information on world markets and domestic consumption.

NAL Call No.: 49-IN3
"New methods for rearing edible snails [Italy]." "Nuove tecniche di allevamento delle chiocciole."
Avagnina, G. Informatore Zootecnico [Bologna: Edagricole] 29, no. 18 (September 30, 1982): p. 85. 85. Includes illustrations.
(Language: Italian.)

"Oh, give me a home, where the Escargot roam...Food: Snail ranchers hope to slime their competition with product that chefs at upscale eateries say is more tasty."
Hightower, Susan. Los Angeles Times , Orange County ed., December 5, 1995, Business Section, p. 8 part D.

"Only one of its kind in US California snail rancher turns slippery mollusk into high-flown Escargot."
Stein, Mark A. Los Angeles Times, Home ed., March 5, 1987, Business Section, p. 1, part 4.

["Oviposition and egg incubation in artificial conditions by Helix aspersa Mueller."] "De eileg en incubatie van eieren van Helix aspersa Mueller."
De Grisse, A. Mededelingen Van De Faculteit-Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent (Belgium) 55 (1990): 35-46. Includes references and illustrations.

NAL Call No.: 511-P444AEB
"Participation of calcium and calmodulin in mechanisms of development of sensitization in the edible snail."
Nikitin, VP; Samoilov, MO; and SA Kozyrev. Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Doklady Biological Sciences Section . New York, NY: Consultants Bureau, March 1992. b v. 320 (1/6): 600-605.
Translated from: Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 320, no. 1 (1991): 236-241. (511 P444A).
(Language: English; Russian.)

Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits: importance in the life history of Helix aspersa (Mollusca: Helicidae) in a recently colonized habitat.
Madec, L.; Desbuquois, C.; Coutellec-Vreto, MA Biological Journal of the Linnean Society . 2000, 69: 1, 25-39. Includes references.
(Language: English)

"Population density effects on growth in culture of the edible snail Helix aspersa var. maxima."
Jess S; and RJ Marks. [Applied Plant Science Division, Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, UK.] Journal of Molluscan Studies 61 (3): 313-323. Includes references.
(Language: English)
Abstract : Discusses stocking density and growth for the culture of Helix aspersa.

NAL Call No.: 464.8-SP2
"The potential for snail farming."
Elmslie, LJ SPAN: Progress in Agriculture [Foston: JGR Stevens] 25, no. 1 (1982): 35-37. Includes references.

NAL Call No.: 23-N484
"The potential for snail farming."
Elmslie, LJ New Zealand Farmer 103 (November 1982): 30, 33.

NAL Call No.: SB599.B73
"The potential for snail farming in West Africa."
Hodasi, JKM In the series analytic: Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the British Crop Protection Council with the Support of the Malacological Society of London, April 10-12, 1989, University of Surrey, Guildford, England . I. Henderson, ed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph Series, no. 41 (1989): 27-31. Thornton Heath, [England]: British Crop Protection Council, 1989.

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6A82-1984
"A practical approach to backyard snail farming."
Akinnusi, O. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production . 1998, 25: 1-2, 193-197

NAL Call No.: SF597.S6D4
[Practical Rational Snail Breeding.] Elicicoltura Pratica Razionale.
Della Peita, Cesare. In the series, I Tucani , no. 6. 6. Milano: Ottaviano, 1981. 200 pp. Includes references and illustrations.

["Practical studies and applications on open air breeding to complete life cycle of Helix pomatia."] "Studi e applicazioni pratiche sull' allevamento a ciclo biologico completo delle Helix pomatia all' aperto."
Cavallo Passerini, MG Elicicoltura (Italy) . April 1993. p. p. 12. 12.
(Language: Italian.)
SELECCIONEM A GIRONA, CANDITATS A TERCERS I QUARTS DE LLISTA PER A NOU PARTIT POLÍTIC DE AMPLE COBERTURA IDEOLÒGICA I LLISTES OBERTES- ABSTENIRSE SI SOU PROPENSOS A LA CORRUPCIÒ
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GIRONA A L´ABAST